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Journal of the History of Ideas

Volume 79, Number 3, July 2018 

The Origen of Pico’s Kabbalah: Esoteric Wisdom and the Dignity of Man 
pp. 343 - 361
The importance of Origen of Alexandria’s legacy for Giovanni Pico della Mirandola has been widely debated for its role in Pico’s trial, its possible reverberations on the entire “Apology,” and its assonance with the Pichian idea of the dignity of man. This article aims instead to show the substantial role of Origen in shaping the Pichian construction of the Christian Kabbalah’s tradition. This scrutiny, by clarifying the extent of the Origenian influence as well as Pico’s rhetorial strategies, helps to put the Pichian idea of the freedom of man in a new framework.
Immaterial Spirits and the Reform of First Philosophy: The Compatibility of Kant’s pre-Critical Metaphysics with the Arguments in Dreams of a Spirit-Seer 
pp. 363 - 383
This article argues that Kant’s early metaphysics (1755–1764) remains unscathed by the arguments found in the 1766 work, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer. I expose the errors of the standard approaches to Dreams, which take the text to be either entirely opposed to metaphysics or at least critical of all present forms of metaphysics, Kant’s own early work included. Through a close reading of the text of Dreams, I show that Kant’s early metaphysics remains the standard of how metaphysics should be done, how it avoids any commitment to immaterial spirits, and what some of its actual conclusions are.
Revisiting Hempel’s 1942 Contribution to the Philosophy of History 
pp. 385 - 406
This paper situates Carl Hempel’s 1942 paper “The Function of General Laws in History” within a broader debate over the philosophy of history in American academia between 1935 and 1943. I argue that Hempel’s paper was directed against German neo-Kantianism, and show how the German debate over historiography continued between 1939 and 1943 in the context of New York through the contributions of German philosophers who operated in the same intellectual network as Hempel, namely Paul Oskar Kristeller and Edgar Zilsel. Whereas this debate still witnessed many different philosophical approaches, Hempel’s logico-analytic methodology would come to dominate analytic philosophy of history.
Introduction: Special Forum on Christianity and Human Rights 
pp. 407 - 409
Christian Human Rights in the French Revolution 
pp. 411 - 426
This essay explores the early Catholic response to the concept of human rights. It is widely assumed that the Catholic Church opposed human rights talk in the wake of the French Revolution, and only slowly came around to accepting it in the twentieth century. However, a more systematic analysis of Pius VI’s stance toward the French Revolution reveals that he approved of human rights, but had a more Thomistic understanding of them than what was found in the French Declaration. The Vatican’s embrace of human rights in the 1930s should accordingly be seen as a continuity of more long-standing practices.
American Protestants and the Era of Anti-racist Human Rights 
pp. 427 - 443
How Christian conceptions of human rights became associated with anti-racism is the subject of this article. Protestants rooted human rights in a philosophical doctrine called “personalism,” whose language of “dignity,” the “human family,” and the “human person” was first developed in the Methodist-run philosophy department at Boston University at the turn of the century. Personalism, evoked in interwar discussions of racism and colonialism, transformed into the political language of human rights during World War II, a moment when Protestant intellectuals were seeking to defend liberal freedoms.
Theology and the Politics of Christian Human Rights 
pp. 445 - 460

This article provides a rejoinder to recent historical accounts which trace the origins of international human rights to the work of conservative Christians writing in the 1930s and 1940s. Focusing on the French Catholics usually identified as the architects of Christian human rights theory, I argue that this was neither a unified project, nor an unambiguously conservative one. Instead, I stress the political ambivalence of Christian human rights discourse—the way it defied distinctions between right and left, or liberal and conservative.

Catholics, Protestants, and the Tortured Path to Religious Liberty 
pp. 461 - 479
This essay explores the transformation of Catholic thinking about the right to religious freedom. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Catholics vehemently opposed this right (Pope Gregory XVI called it “absurd and erroneous”). Church leaders claimed that in order to protect Catholic Church teachings on marriage, education, and worship, states had to enshrine them in law, even if that meant severely limiting the rights of Protestants, Jews, and others. The 1950s and 1960s, however, witnessed a sea change, as a growing chorus of thinkers and theologians called on Catholics to embrace a pluralist and tolerant attitude.
An Anti-totalitarian Saint: The Canonization of Edith Stein 
pp. 481 - 495
This essay explores the intellectual origins of Edith Stein’s canonization. In the years of the early Cold War, when Christians on both sides of the Atlantic proclaimed “Judeo-Christian civilization” to be the greatest bulwark against totalitarianism in both its Nazi and Soviet guises, Stein became a powerful anti-totalitarian symbol. During the 1980s, a new Pope, John Paul II, revived the memory of Stein and linked it to his own rich understanding of Judeo-Christian civilization as a set of values opposed to both Nazism and Communism. Thus, Edith Stein became an icon of anti-totalitarianism in an age of Holocaust memory.
Books Received 
pp. 497 - 499
pp. 501 - 503

Volume 79, Number 1, January 2018

Anthropologia: An (Almost) Forgotten Early Modern History 
Tricia M. Ross 

Approximately thirty almost entirely overlooked books appeared in Europe between 1500 and 1700 that include the word anthropologia in their titles. At first glance, the content of these works bears no resemblance to anthropology as we think of it. They present a combination of medieval traditions, cutting-edge medical practices, and evolving natural philosophical and theological systems found in universities of all confessions across Europe. But these largely overlooked sources reveal that the disciplines we use to study ourselves may have developed from an intertwined natural philosophical and religious system. They suggest that anthropology's typical origin narrative should be reconsidered.

The First Orchestrated Attack on Spinoza: Johannes Melchioris and the Cartesian Network in Utrecht 
Albert Gootjes 

This article examines the immediate Dutch reception of the Tractatus theologico-politicus. Using newfound archival sources it demonstrates that the anti-Spinoza activity of the Cartesians in Utrecht extends far beyond the well-known writings of Lambertus van Velthuysen and Regnerus van Mansveld. Their Cartesian network not only produced the very first public refutation to appear, but also formed a center for coordinating much of the Dutch response to Spinoza. This engagement, it is argued in closing, must be accounted for in Spinoza reception history, and forms the background to the mysterious visit Spinoza paid to Utrecht in the summer of 1673.

The Many Liberalisms of Serge Audier 
Daniel Steinmetz-Jenkins 
Kevin Brookes 

The French philosopher Serge Audier has perhaps become the leading authority on the history of liberalism in France. However, he is largely unknown in the United States. This article attempts to provide the first critical overview of Audier's work in English. It does so by suggesting that the major aim of Audier's work is to revive a forgotten strand of social liberalism in France. The article illustrates this by looking at Audier's writings on the works of Léon Bourgeois and Raymond Aron and also his critical studies on the history of neoliberalism in France and beyond.

Revising History: Introduction to the Symposium on the Bicentennial of the Latin American Revolutions of Independence 
Elías Palti 

Introduction to the symposium on the bicentennial of the Latin American revolutions of independence.

Empires, Nations, and Revolutions 
Jeremy Adelman 

This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.

The Conceptual History of Independence and the Colonial Question in Spanish America 
pp. 89 - 103 
Francisco A. Ortega 

The idea that Spanish American countries experienced colonialism was well accepted for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The independence movements in the early nineteenth century were viewed as the result of struggles by oppressed nations against the metropole's tyranny. Recent historiography views the collapse of the monarchy as the result of the political and legal crisis brought about by the Napoleonic invasion and the illegal abdications in Bayonne in March 1808. Colonial and post-colonial theories and categories have been brought under scrutiny. The following pages sketch the historiographical and theoretical grounds and consequences of this paradigm shift.

Catholic Republicanism: The Creation of the Spanish American Republics during Revolution 
pp. 105 - 123 
Gabriel Entin 

The crisis of the Spanish Catholic monarchy paved the way for the creation of more than twenty republics in Latin America between 1810 and 1825. This paper analyzes early nineteenth-century Spanish American republican experiences, which have been generally neglected in the historiography, as constitutive parts of Atlantic republicanism. It focuses on the theologico-political considerations of the res publica from the seventeenth century onwards, the articulation of a patriotic discourse in the American colonies of Spain during the eighteenth century, and how Spanish-American revolutionaries used republican languages based on Roman references, natural rights, and Catholicism to create new political legitimacy.

Beyond the "History of Ideas": The Issue of the "Ideological Origins of the Revolutions of Independence" Revisited 
pp. 125 - 141 
Elías Palti 

This paper analyzes how Latin American historiography has addressed the issue of "the ideological origins of the revolution of independence," and how the formulation of that topic implies assumptions proper to the tradition of the history of ideas and leads to anachronistic conceptual transpositions. Halperín Donghi's work models a different approach, illuminating how a series of meaningful torsions within traditional languages provided the ideological framework for a result incompatible with those languages. This paradox forces a break with the frameworks of the history of ideas and the set of antinomies intrinsic to them, such as that between "tradition" and "modernity."

Race, Wars, and Citizenship: Free People of Color in the Spanish American Independence 
pp. 143 - 156 
Federica Morelli 

The role played by free people of color in the Spanish American independence movements is at the center of this essay. Their ambiguous status makes them a privileged group to study when examining the negotiation and formation of racial identity as well as the definition of citizenship requirements in colonial and post-colonial contexts. Through an analysis of the contributions made by recent studies, this article proposes a historiographical survey of the transformation of racial and social hierarchies and of the shaping of new citizenship rights during the crisis of the Spanish Empire and the independence wars.

History of Concepts and the Historiography of the Independence of Brazil: A Preliminary Diagnosis 
pp. 157 - 168 
João Paulo Pimenta 

The aim of this article is to discuss the history of the Independence of Brazil by highlighting the historiographical approaches from the so-called "History of Concepts," which in the current Brazilian historiography are related to a German intellectual branch, but often articulated to other approaches that can be referred to as intellectual history, history of languages and of political discourses. It offers a brief overview of the historiography of Independence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, through to the diagnosis of their basic lineages, then it discusses current conceptual approaches. The conclusion indicates five points to contribute to a better understanding of the Independence of Brazil.

Books Received 
pp. 169 - 171 

pp. 173 - 175


October 2017  Vol. 78.4

• • • • • • • •

Can the Nonhuman Speak?: Breaking the Chain of Being in the Anthropocene

Joyce E. Chaplin 

The fact that nonhuman animals share the power of communication, plus the likelihood that some share our capacity for ideation, demands reevaluation of why human ideas matter, and especially whether they adequately convey a sense of our place within the rest of nature. Nonhuman beings and phenomena may be intrinsically unhuman, but are not necessarily less important than us. Analysis of this difference-as-significance is an ongoing problem of the Anthropocene. This essay focuses on Arthur Lovejoy’s Great Chain of Being and Edmund Burke’s concept of the sublime, describing alternative ways of situating humans in relation to the nonhuman.

 Saving the Philosopher’s Soul: The De pietate Aristotelis by Fortunio Liceti

Eva Del Soldato

The De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum et homines (1645) by Fortunio Liceti is a one-of-a-kind text. In this book Liceti claimed that Aristotle converted to Judaism, and that he never contradicted the Scriptures in his writings. At a time when competing philosophical and scientific schools put Aristotle at odds with faith, restoring his reputation from a religious point of view could be seen as key to safeguarding Peripateticism. Nonetheless Liceti composed his work not to polemicize with anti-Aristotelians, but rather with fellow Aristotelians who were not sufficiently committed to defending his stature.


Useful Knowledge, Improvement, and the Logic of Capital in Richard Ligon’s True and Exact History of Barbados

David Chan Smith 


Richard Ligon’s True and Exact History of Barbados has been recognized as a major source of information on the emergence of planter society and slavery in the English Caribbean. Curiously, however, the centrality of the text’s discussion of business has been overlooked. Yet Ligon presents the History as a how-to manual on building and managing a sugar fortune. In doing so, Ligon self-consciously connects his work to Baconian ideas of improvement and useful knowledge to legitimize the position of the planters over others, and lend respectability to commercial accumulation.


Charles Darwin’s Theory of Moral Sentiments: What Darwin’s Ethics Really Owes to Adam Smith

Greg Priest

When we read the Origin, we cannot help but hear echoes of the Wealth of Nations. Darwin’s “economy of nature” features a “division of labour” that leads to complexity and productivity. We should not, however, analyze Darwin’s ethics through this lens. Darwin did not draw his economic ideas from Smith, nor did he base his ethics on an economic foundation. Darwin’s ethics rest on Smith’s notion from the Theory of Moral Sentiments of an innate human faculty of sympathy. Darwin gave this faculty an evolutionary interpretation and built on this foundation an ethics far removed from what is commonly supposed.

 Marie Stopes’s Wonderful Rhythm Charts: Normalizing the Natural

Laura Doan 


Historians of sexuality credit marital advice with disseminating a modern discourse of the sexual, as developed by sexologists who understood sex as normal or abnormal. Marie Stopes did not reproduce their findings but drew on the methods of biometricians in attempting to normalize the natural. Thinking about Stopes’s methods in discerning a naturally occurring curve of normal female sex-impulses in relation to Havelock Ellis points to constraints in his production of the normal. The article traces the impact of Stopes’s attempt to measure desire by analyzing letters from her readers who became partners in the great scientific project of normalization.

Theory, Practice, and Modernity: Leo Strauss on Rousseau’s Epicureanism

Jared Holley 


This article reconstructs Leo Strauss’s reading of Rousseau’s Epicureanism to argue that his work is unified by an abiding concern with the problem of theory and practice. Strauss sought to clarify the distinction between theory and practice he considered a fundamental precondition of any properly philosophical reflection on political life, and he explained the pernicious obscuring of that distinction through a narrative tracing the modern modifications of classical Epicureanism. Strauss’s critical history of modern political thought is thus part of his attempt to restore the classical distinction between theory and practice to the status of a philosophical problem in modernity.

  A Thousand Warburgs

David L. Marshall 

A review essay of recent literature in the field of Warburg studies.


April 2017  Vol. 78.2

• • • • • • • •

Girolamo Cardano and Julius Caesar Scaliger in Debate about Nature’s Musical Secrets

Jacomien Prins

This article examines the theories of the power of ancient music and the superiority of the sense of hearing proposed by Girolamo Cardano in his De subtilitate and Julius Caesar Scaliger’s critique of these views in his Exercitationes exotericae de subtilitate. Despite Scaliger’s rejection of Cardano’s claim that he had successfully revealed the "subtle" nature of the sense of hearing and the innate harmony between music and the passions, both thinkers are shown to conduct their debate in one and the same inherited discourse in which new theories were shaped about music, what it does, or what it should do.

Zilsel’s Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe

Henrique Leitão, Antonio Sánchez

Zilsel’s thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel’s ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel’s thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel’s thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

Spinoza’s Life: 1677–1802

Wiep van Bunge

Immediately after Spinoza’s death in 1677 his first biographers framed a life which would play an important part in the eighteenth-century perception of the Dutch philosopher. Bayle’s entry on Spinoza in the Dictionnaire in particular, together with Jelles’s preface to the Opera posthuma, created the image of a philosopher whose dedication to philosophy was unconditional and whose moral behavior was impeccable. Despite the general hostility which Spinoza’s views continued to meet, his life appears to have contributed considerably to the gradual rediscovery of his works during the dying decades of the eighteenth century, most notably in Germany and the Netherlands.

Leopold Zunz and the Meanings of Wissenschaft

Amos Bitzan

When Jewish historians narrate the history of their field, they often point to Leopold Zunz (1794–1886) as its founder. My article challenges the notion that Zunz’s early understanding of Wissenschaft was primarily historical. Reconstructing the meaning of Wissenschaft for Zunz in its context, I argue that it was more philosophical than historical and closely linked to an ideal of character formation. Zunz’s view of Wissenschaft reveals the ways in which German idealist philosophy, neo-Humanist manifestos, and a Romantic religious reform agenda could produce a scientific interest in the human past that seems at odds with central tenets of historicism.

John Rawls in Light of the Archive: Introduction to the Symposium on the Rawls Papers

Mark Bevir

This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls’s philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls’s engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory. And the papers present conflicting accounts of Rawls’s democratic society and the role of democratic debate in the justification of a political vision.

Rawls on Philosophy and Democracy: Lessons from the Archived Papers

David A. Reidy

Drawing from Rawls’s archived papers, I explore a few of the basic relationships between philosophy and democracy framing Rawls’s political philosophy.

“The Latest Invasion from Britain”: Young Rawls and His Community of American Ethical Theorists

P. MacKenzie Bok

This piece shows how other archives can complement the Rawls Papers at Harvard by reconstructing Rawls’s community of ethical theorists in the 1950s and early 1960s. It casts new light on Rawls’s early immersion in the nascent movement of American Wittgensteinianism at Cornell, and traces his involvement in a transatlantic group of philosophers doing “analytic ethics” with an emphasis on inductive logic in order to rebut the “emotive theory.” It further illustrates how the willingness of Rawls and his contemporaries to question “the naturalistic fallacy” laid the groundwork for Rawls to build his own mature moral theory on natural foundations.

This article sheds light on John Rawls’s views on John Dewey’s philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls’s rejection of Kant’s dualisms predates by at least three decades the “Dewey Lectures” (1980) and that Dewey’s notion of deliberation as “dramatic rehearsal in imagination” might have had an impact on Rawls’s development of the notion of “reflective equilibrium” as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection.

Andrius Gališanka

I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory’s influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls’s political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments. This was an idealized analysis unconnected to the vision of direct democracy.

January 2017, Vol. 78.1

• • • • • • • •

Bodin’s Puritan Readers and Radical Democracy in Early New England

J. S. Maloy

The legal and political theory of Jean Bodin made a significant impact on ecclesiastical and constitutional ideas in the earliest puritan colonies in New England (ca. 1620-50), structuring the terms of debate over basic institutions. The Massachusetts regime was initialy considered a “popular state” with an “aristocratic government,” akin to ancient Rome and modern Geneva. Through the pressures of political conflict, however, the colony elite abandoned Bodin’s distinction between sovereignty and government in favor of Aristotelian ideas of mixture and balance. Radical democrats, by contrast, creatively adapted Bodin’s analytic protocols to advocate reforms that he would have abhorred.

The Body of Mahomet: Pierre Bayle on War, Sex, and Islam

Mara van der Lugt

This paper discusses Pierre Bayle’s article on Muhammad in his Dictionnaire historique et critique (1696), especially with regard to its two main themes: the role of force in the establishment of Islam, and sexual morality within Islam. Both themes had been a traditional part of Christian apologetics for centuries, but Bayle takes them up in an unconventional way, proposing to write the history of Islam objectively rather than fitting it into a Christian story. This article will discuss these and other themes in Bayle’s "Mahomet" and place it within the wider historiographical context of the early modern debate on Islam.

Miltonic Sublimity and the Crisis of Wolffianism before Kant

Adam Foley

A generation before Kant emerged from his "dogmatic slumber,” Christian Wolff’s rationalist metaphysics had already undergone a crisis. When Johann Jakob Bodmer translated Paradise Lost into German (1732) it sparked a polemic among leading Wolffians. The metaphysics of Milton's poetology raised concerns about the extent and bounds of rational imagination analogous to Kant's concerns about the limits of pure reason. The aesthetics of creative genius Bodmer articulated in his defense of Milton was based on Wolff’s rationalism yet found warm acceptance among leading Romantics of the following generation. This article therefore contributes to the rationalist roots of Romantic irrationalism.

The Problem of Natural Religion in Smith’s Moral Thought

Colin Heydt

A number of recent interpretations defend the description of Adam Smith as "a strong supporter of natural theology" and claim that his moral philosophy depends, in some way, on God and God’s providence. This paper argues against that claim using novel evidence. What I demonstrate is that Smith took positions at odds with a conventional commitment to natural religion’s importance for morality. In particular, I show that it is hard to square Smith’s alleged support of natural religion with his account of conscience, his natural rights theory, and his omission of piety from his catalog of virtues.

Between Philosophy and Judaism: Leo Strauss’s Skeptical Engagement with Zionism

Simon W. Taylor

This article offers an explanation for Leo Strauss’s apparently contradictory views on Israel and the Zionist project. Strauss’s views on Zionism, I argue, are intelligible only within an interpretative framework that allows for the fundamentally open-ended nature of Strauss’s thought. With this in mind, the article demonstrates how Strauss was able to reject the philosophical validity of Zionism even as he maintained a sectarian loyalty to Israel and the Jewish people. These twin identities – what I term “Strauss the Philosopher” and “Strauss the Man” – are justified on the grounds of Strauss’s wider thought.

Adolescence versus Politics: Metaphors in Late Colonial Uganda

Carol Summers

In late colonial Uganda, British social scientists, development experts, religious leaders, and administrators used the metaphor of adolescence to explain political unrest. If Uganda could be seen as an adolescent, upheaval in the model colony was a sign of successful growth, not a rejection of British administration or global ideas of development and progress. Using the metaphor of adolescence, experts emphasized the period’s turmoil as signs of biosocial, adolescent maturation, rather than symptoms of political competition, clashing class interests, or ethnic patriotisms. Through this powerful metaphor, British observers rejected any politics based in different values, interests, or goals.

The Many Returns of Philology: A State of the Field Report

Andrew Hui

A review essay considering three recent works: Philology: The Forgotten Origins of the Modern Humanities, by James Turner; World Philology, edited by Sheldon Pollock, Benjamin A. Elman, and Ku-ming Kevin Chang; and Minima Philologicaby Werner Hamacher.

October 2016  Vol. 77.4

• • • • • • • •

A Humanist in the Kloyz: New Perspectives on the Maharal of Prague and Jacques Bongars

Joanna Weinberg

The article focuses on one entry written in Hebrew in the Album amicorum belonging to the great humanist and diplomat Jacques Bongars. This precious document challenges conventional wisdom about aspects of the life and work of both Bongars and the Maharal of Prague, a central figure in Jewish cultural life in sixteenth-century Central Europe. By setting the album entry in both figures’ historical and cultural worlds, the article reveals how the worlds of these two late great Renaissance figures were intertwined.

Galileo’s Two New Sciences as a Model of Reading Practice

Renée Raphael

Galileo’s 1638 Two New Sciences, a canonical text of early modern science, is analyzed as a window into period practices of mixed-mathematical reading. Galileo’s depiction of reading reflects common scholarly practices, including those of summarizing, commenting, repeated study, and an interest in mathematical diagrams. With this text, Galileo also attempted to shape his readers’ practices, inciting them to approach topical-based reading strategies with care and to use experiment and experience to validate the written word. It is suggested that the concern with reading practices exhibited in the text derived from circumstances surrounding Galileo’s 1633 condemnation.

Ideas on the Move: Context in Transnational Intellectual History

Edward Baring

Intellectual historians have often associated contexts with places. In this paper, I examine the effects of this association and develop a different model more suited to transnational study. I guide my analysis by a study of neo-scholastics in the early part of the twentieth century, who wrote for a transnational audience. They were able to make their texts intelligible to readers in different countries by drawing on a shared archive of medieval scholasticism. Their example, I suggest, provides insights into the meaning and value of contextualization, and opens up new ways to understand how ideas transcend geographical and temporal divides.

Cybernetic Muse: Hannah Arendt on Automation, 1951–1958

Brian Simbirski

Almost no attention has been given to Hannah Arendt’s discussion of automation despite her claim that it was of almost unparalleled importance. This article demonstrates how Arendt’s conception of political action came to depend on her assessment of American technological trends following nuclear fission, especially automation and cybernetics. It contextualizes Arendt’s engagement with American interlocutors, showing how this informed her conception of political action in The Human Condition (1958). It is intended to provide some groundwork for further exploration of Arendt’s consideration of how modern technology and politics correlated.

Introduction to the Symposium on Jonathan Israel’s Democratic Enlightenment

Richard Wolin

An introduction to the symposium to follow, on Jonathan Israel’s 2011 volume Democratic Enlightenment, with contributions by Helena Rosenblatt, Joanna Stalnaker, and Jonathan Israel. The symposium was held at the CUNY Graduate Center on February 25, 2013, and moderated by Richard Wolin; all contributions have been revised for publication.

Rousseau, the “Traditionalist”

Helena Rosenblatt

This contribution to the symposium on Jonathan Israel’s Democratic Enlightenment focuses on Israel’s treatment of Rousseau, in particular contesting his characterization of Rousseau as a “traditionalist” thinker.

Jonathan Israel in Dialogue

Joanna Stalnaker

This essay addresses Jonathan Israel’s work on the Enlightenment and his response to his critics, with a particular focus on his interpretation of the French Enlightenment figures Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The essay makes the argument that the stakes of the vociferous exchange between Israel and his critics concern not just our historical interpretation of the Enlightenment, but also the place of dialogue in our search for historical and philosophical truth. In neglecting the central importance of dialogue in Enlightenment thought, Israel has attributed a static quality to the thought of the radical thinkers he seeks to champion.

Rousseau, Diderot, and the “Radical Enlightenment”: A Reply to Helena Rosenblatt and Joanna Stalnaker

Jonathan Israel

The final contribution to the symposium on Jonathan Israel’s Democratic Enlightenment, in which Israel responds to the preceding essays by Helena Rosenblatt and Joanna Stalnaker.

July 2016  Vol. 77.3

• • • • • • • •

2015 Arthur O. Lovejoy Lecture The Boys on the Beach: Children’s Games and Baptismal Grace in Medieval Thought

Marcia L. Colish

This paper tracks the fortunes of the debate on whether children playing at baptism can actually administer and receive a valid sacramental baptism from Rufinus of Aquileia (late 4th to early 5th century) through ca. 1300. Theologians and canonists who addressed this question arrived at no consensus. They often disagreed with their own masters, applied Rufinus to a range of issues he never took up, used him to support or criticize Augustine on this topic, and viewed as acceptable more than one position on it within orthodox Christianity.

Democritus Junior as Reader of Auctoritates: Robert Burton’s Method and The Anatomy of Melancholy

Giuliano Mori

This essay analyzes Robert Burton’s methodological approach to the subject of melancholy and draws comparisons between Burton’s method of inquiry and the 17th-century scientific method at large. Burton’s sources are hence examined and two epistemological lines of influence are singled out, one being characterized by deductive procedures (Galen, Ramus), and the other by inductivism (Hippocrates, pseudo-Hippocratic representation of Democritus). Combined by Burton, these traditions inspired the structure of Burton’s Anatomy, which allowed the concurrence of multiple opinions that mutually interact and automatically correct one another within a cento-like text.

John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century

Ian W. S. Campbell

During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

Pufendorf on Passions and Sociability

Heikki Haara

Samuel Pufendorf is known for his normative natural law philosophy, and particularly for his theory of sociability. This article concentrates on a topic that has received very little attention – his theory of the motivating character of passions in social life. It will demonstrate that individually and politically governed passions play a central role in Pufendorf’s description of the structure of human societies. I argue that for Pufendorf the norms of sociability are effective in social life because social interaction, guided by political governance, enables people to moderate their antisocial passions and habituate themselves to sociable passions.

Free Will, Predestination, and the Fate of the Ottoman Empire

Ethan L. Menchinger

Although European travelers to the Ottoman Empire often noted the inhabitants’ “fatalism,” historians have never seriously examined this intellectual phenomenon. Whether or not we can credit such sources, the testimony of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Turkish and Arabic sources points to a robust debate over fate, free will, and predestination. What were the reasons behind these discussions? What issues were at stake? This article outlines the context and content of the debate. It then offers some observations about the wider significance of free will and predestination in the Ottoman intellectual universe – particularly their relation to early modern bureaucratic and military reform.

Bergson’s Philosophy of Will and the War of 1914–1918

Mark Sinclair

In his wartime discourses of 1914, Henri Bergson mobilizes his philosophy of creative evolution: France is a nation of creative life able to replenish itself, whereas Germany, for all its technological might, is a mechanistic power bound to wear itself out. This paper shows that this moblization is made possible by Bergson's philosophy of will: life as a creative principle is will, and it is a controllable and commandable willpower that he opposes to Germany. Grasping this is crucial for understanding not only the war discourses but also Bergson's later reflections on technology, modernity, and mysticism.

Wheeler and Whitehead: Process Biology and Process Philosophy in the Early Twentieth Century

Dennis Sölch

The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology. 

April 2016, Vol. 77.2

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Walter Odington’s De etate mundi and the Pursuit of a Scientific Chronology in Medieval England

Carl Philipp Emanuel Nothaft

This article deals with a forgotten treatise on the age of the world, written between 1308 and 1316 by Walter Odington, a monk of Evesham Abbey, otherwise known for his writings on alchemy and music theory. By tracing the sources and rationale behind Odington’s arguments and comparing them with those of other medieval authors, the article attempts to shed new light on the state of chronological scholarship in England in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, when astronomical and astrological methods were freely used to supplement or replace scriptural interpretation, yielding creative and unexpected results.

Land and Nation: The Ancient Modernity of National Geography (Piedmont, 1750–1800)

Marco Cavarzere

This paper focuses on the shift that occurred in the spatial representation of states in the eighteenth century. This shift will be considered as a combination of institutional reforms and of a new social awareness of space. A consideration of the case of the Italian Piedmont will demonstrate how “national” space was created through antiquarian research and how a larger political confrontation took place in the guise of a learned debate. The diverse accounts of Piedmontese history under examination all employed methods derived from previous ages, relying upon a concept of space as historically continuous, embedded in time immemorial.

John Adams’s Montesquieuean Moment: Enlightened Historicism in theDiscourses on Davila

Jonathan Green

At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams’s Machiavellianism—his conviction that men’s passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation’s character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government. Situating the Discourses vis-à-vis Adams’s contemporaneous reading of Montesquieu, this article argues for an underappreciated historicist dimension to his thought.

Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy

Alberto Vanzo

This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

A Contingent Affinity: Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, and the Challenge of Modern Politics

Pedro T. Magalhães

The thesis that the theory of charismatic–plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors’ concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber–Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity. Instead, it should rather be understood in terms of a contingent affinity.

Big is a Thing of the Past: Climate Change and Methodology in the History of Ideas

Deborah R. Coen

The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of “scaling”; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable. Historical examples are explored in which such a process of commensuration has allowed for a pluralism of perceptions of space and time.

Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History

Takashi Shogimen

Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

January 2016  Vol. 77.1

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2013 Arthur O. Lovejoy Lecture: A Cognitive History of Divination in Ancient Greece

Peter T. Struck

Ancient Greeks drew advice from oracles, dreams, entrails, the movements of birds, sneezes, and myriad other sources for divination. Classicists typically study such phenomena as examples of occult religion, or for their use as a social mechanism for managing dissent and forging consensus. Ancient philosophical accounts by contrast go a longer way toward considering them seriously, on their own terms. They take them as an invitation into developing speculative accounts of non-standard epistemological schemes. Plato is examined as a case study of a more general Greek philosophical tendency to treat divination as something akin to what we might call intuition.

President Edwards and the Sage of Highgate: Determinism, Depravity, and the Supernatural Will

Brad Bannon

Scarce attention has been given to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's engagement with the philosophical theology of Jonathan Edwards, and yet a clear understanding of each thinker's position on determinism and Original Sin is of vital importance if we are understand the lasting significance of their disagreements. There have been a number of studies to take up Coleridge's influence on the American Romantics, but there is no scholarship that has taken into account how the reception of this influence was inflected both by the legacy of Edwards and by the critical response that his theology elicited from Coleridge.

Formulating an Anarchist Sociology: Peter Kropotkin’s Reading of Herbert Spencer

Matthew S. Adams

The work of Herbert Spencer was a crucial influence on the development of Peter Kropotkin’s historical sociology. However, scholars have underestimated this relationship; either overlooking it entirely, or minimizing Kropotkin’s attachment to Spencer with the aim of maintaining the utility of his political thought in the present. This article contests these interpretations by analyzing Kropotkin’s reading of Spencer’s epistemological, biological, and political ideas. It argues that Kropotkin was engaged in a critical dialogue with Spencer, incorporating many Spencerian principles in his own system, but also using this reading to articulate a distinctive anarchist politics.

Facing Asymmetry: Nordic Intellectuals and Center–Periphery Dynamics in European Cultural Space

Stefan Nygård, Johan Strang

This article addresses the role of asymmetry in the interaction between intellectual fields in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By focusing on the spatial and temporal hierarchies implicit in the ways intellectuals from the Nordic countries perceived and made use of marginality and backwardness, the article brings a peripheral perspective to the discussion of transnational intellectual history. This is important as the discussion on transnational history tends to stress notions like reciprocity and hybridity, which reproduce the ideal of a borderless and equal republic of letters, and paints a too harmonious picture of global cultural space.

Symposium on J. G. A. Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion: Introduction

Richard Wolin

The sixth and final volume of J. G. A. Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion appeared in 2015; Wolin designates this work an exemplar of “total history” and of “philosophical historiography,” in Momigliano’s term. The symposium to follow—comprising this introduction by Richard Wolin, essays by Helena Rosenblatt, Jonathan Israel, and Pierre Force, and a concluding response by Pocock—constitutes one of the first critical examinations of Pocock’s late work, and arises out of a conference hosted at the CUNY Graduate Center in 2010. 

J. G. A. Pocock and the “Language of Enlightenment” in His Barbarism and Religion

Jonathan Israel

In Barbarism and Religion, his six-volume work on the “Enlightenments” of Edward Gibbon, J. G. A. Pocock argues for a “family of enlightenments,” disputing accounts, particularly Venturi’s and Gay’s, of it as a unified phenomenon. This article asserts, however, that Pocock’s reconfiguration of different national contexts to emphasize the diversity of strands of the Enlightenment underestimates their commonality and the degree to which they fall into the recognizable currents of radical and moderate. Ultimately, Pocock’s attention to the ecclesiastical and theological dimensions of the Enlightenment undermines rather than supports his argument for its pluralism.

The “Exasperating Predecessor”: Pocock on Gibbon and Voltaire

Pierre Force

This article offers a critical discussion of Pocock’s analysis of the relationship between Gibbon and Voltaire, and particularly the extent to which Decline and Fall was inspired by Voltaire’s Essai sur les moeurs. It shows that “Momigliano’s hypothesis” about the divorce of philosophy and erudition and their reconciliation in Gibbon was initially a commentary by Momigliano on Voltaire’s historical work. It argues that the “Momiglianian model” plays a central role in Pocock’s argument in Barbarism and Religion. In that sense, understanding Gibbon’s highly ambiguous appraisal of Voltaire helps us understand the overall purpose of Decline and Fall.

On Context and Meaning in Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion, and on Gibbon’s “Protestantism” in His Chapters on Religion

Helena Rosenblatt

Rosenblatt questions whether Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion, though enormously learned and rich, in fact accomplishes Pocock’s stated aims. In other words, does the context presented help to explain the intended meaning and significance of Gibbon’s Decline and Fall? She asks whether Pocock’s methodology, indebted to the Cambridge School, is consistent and serviceable and challenges his claim that Gibbon should be seen as a member of the “Protestant Enlightenment.”

 July 2015  Vol. 76.3

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The Order of Knowing: Juan Luis Vives on Language, Thought, and the Topics

Lodi Nauta

This article seeks to locate Vives’s work in the tradition of humanist thought that criticized the linguistic and philosophical abstraction of the scholastics. After discussing Vives’s views on language and knowledge as functions of man’s biological nature, the article argues that for Vives the topics, as seats of argumentation, are a reflection of the ontological order and as such an instrument and heuristic aid for the human mind. They form a grid through which knowledge can be acquired and arguments be formulated. The topics bridge the world of (unknown) essences and man’s epistemic categories.


The Ageing of Information: From Particular to Particulate

Paul Duguid

In 1778, Vicesimus Knox declared his time the “Age of Information,” suggesting, in a fashion recognizable today, that the period had severed connections with prior ages. This paper examines Knox’s claim by exploring changes in conceptions of information across the eighteenth century. It notes in particular shifts in the concept’s personal and political implications, reflected in the different ways information is used from Locke at the beginning of the century to Godwin at the end, and manifest to some degree in Knox’s own political radicalisation.


 Quiet War in Germany: Friedrich Schelling and Friedrich Schleiermacher

Zachary Purvis

In the early 1800s, two figures foundational to modern intellectual life, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Friedrich Schleiermacher, engaged in what they called a “quiet war,” stemming from Schelling’s famous lectures on the method of academic study and Schleiermacher’s reaction. This paper argues that their “quiet war” resulted in a powerful synthesis that transformed the German university model and German Protestant and Catholic university theology until the dawn of the twentieth century. Schleiermacher sharply criticized and then in essence adopted the program of Schelling’s lectures. Their disagreements masked deeper commonalities, which together contributed to theology’s historicization in the nineteenth century.


Between Tradition and Revolution: The Curious Case of Francisco Martínez Marina, the Cádiz Constitution, and Spanish Liberalism

Brendon Westler

Histories of liberalism have neglected the existence of a distinctive Spanish liberalism. Influenced in part by British and French thinkers, Spanish liberals also sought to reconnect Spanish political thought with the tradition of the Scholastics. The resulting liberalism combined the two traditions, incorporating both individualist and communitarian features. This article exhibits this unique liberalism through an examination of Francisco Martínez Marina and the 1812 Constitution which he influenced. A proper understanding of this work is important both for developing a more comprehensive understanding of liberalism’s history and for its subsequent influence in Spain and Spanish America.


 Liberty as a Caricature: Bentham’s Antidote to Republicanism

Yiftah Elazar

This article reconsiders Bentham’s theory of liberty in relation to republican and democratic ideas in the Age of Revolution. It reinterprets his jurisprudential definitions of liberty as ideological weapons intended to “cut the throat” of pro-American and proto-democratic discourse. In particular, his negative definition of individual liberty and his democratic and international definitions of political liberty were designed and used to caricature and draw to absurdity the republican ideal of self-government. The early Bentham, according to this interpretation, was a subversive critic of republicanism, who occupied its language of liberty and security while trying to neutralize its democratic potential.



“Science Organized”: Positivism and the Metaphysical Club, 1865–1875

Trevor Pearce

In this paper, I explore the work of several positivists involved with the “Metaphysical Club” of Cambridge, Massachusetts in the early 1870s—Fiske, Wright, and Abbot. Like the logical positivists of the 1930s, these philosophers were forced to answer a key question: with so many of its traditional domains colonized by science and so many of its traditional questions dismissed as metaphysical or useless, what is left for philosophy to do? One answer they gave was that philosophy could unify the sciences. As Fiske put it, “positive philosophy is science organized.”


“A Principle of Universal Strife”: Ricoeur and Merleau-Ponty’s Critiques of Marxist Universalism, 1953–1956

Frank Chouraqui

Although there has been much discussion of the reception of Hobbes’s work, Hobbes’s response to his own reception has rarely received much consideration. This article looks at Hobbes’s engagements with his critics. Far from being rearguard actions by a philosopher under siege, or disingenuous attempts to curry favour with those in power, they can be read as moments when Hobbes in fact sought to convert what he saw as the “truth of speculation into the utility of practice.”


January 2015  Vol. 76.1

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Benedetto Varchi on the Soul: Vernacular Aristotelianism between Reason and Faith

Marco Sgarbi

In this paper, I wish to present the first full-fledged investigation of Benedetto Varchi’s manuscript writings on psychology, which show the depth of his familiarity with philosophy and his originality as a thinker. In particular, I wish to show that Varchi was not an Averroist. Rather in the manuscript Varchi rejects Averroistic doctrines and seeks to reconcile Aristotelian psychology with the truth of religion. In so doing, Varchi appropriates Themistius’s interpretation of Aristotle through the filter of Marcantonio Zimara’s writings, which allows him to support the immortality and indivisibility of the human soul while safeguarding the doctrines of Christian faith.


Cartesian Meteors and Scholastic Meteors: Descartes against the School in 1637

Lucian Petrescu

This paper presents the scientific project of Descartes’s Meteors (1637) and integrates it in the development of Descartes’s thought. It assesses Descartes’s publication strategies and the reception of the essay, while drawing attention on its opposition to contemporary Aristotelian meteorology. I argue that Descartes is concerned in The Meteors with advancing an anti-qualitative physics on the basis of an ontological reduction of real accidents to modes. I then analyses Descartes’s nominalist critique of the late-scholastic notion of body from Replies VI, The World and Rule XIV.


Myth, Science, and the Power of Music in the Early Decades of the Royal Society

Katherine Butler

While the Royal Society’s experimental and mathematical investigations of the 1660-90s opened up new areas of acoustical knowledge, these did not simply overturn older traditions of musical wisdom. Fellows continued to draw on stories of music’s power contained in Classical mythology and Ancient history, as well as more contemporary anecdotes. Considering how they used, evaluated, and interpreted these stories, this study reveals the interdependence of myth, anecdote, and scientific thought in the Royal Society’s musical investigations. Their blending of Humanism with empirical philosophy proved a productive site for developing new conceptions of musical creativity and purpose.


Logic, Psychology, and Apperception: Charles S. Peirce and Johann F. Herbart

Francesco Bellucci

Since his first writings, C. S. Peirce defended an unpsychological approach to logic. His authority was J. F. Herbart, who in his Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie had affirmed that “in logic it is necessary to ignore everything that is psychological.” This would become a standard reference for Peirce’s philosophy of logic. Moreover, it was from Herbart’s conception of apperception that Peirce inherited the “synechistic” law of mind first exposed in 1892. This paper explores Peirce’s lifelong “Herbartian” antipsychologism, reviews Herbart’s notion of apperception and indicates its significance for Peirce’s law of mind.



Lewis Carroll’s Dream-child and Victorian Child Psychopathology

Stephanie L. Schatz

This essay reads Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) alongside influential mid-century Victorian psychology studies—paying special attention to those that Carroll owned—in order to trace the divergence of Carroll’s literary representations of the “dream child” from its prevailing medical association with mental illness. The goals of this study are threefold: to trace the medico-historical links between dream-states and childhood, to investigate the medical reasons behind the pathologization of dream-states, and to understand how Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland contributed to Victorian interpretations of the child’s mind.


“Altars to the Beautiful Necessity”: The Significance of F. W. J. Schelling’s “Philosophical Inquiries in the Nature of Human Freedom” in the Development of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Concept of Fate

David Greenham

Ralph Waldo Emerson’s 1860 essay “Fate” has long been recognised as one of his most important essays. This paper is the first to examine the significance for Emerson of his reading of F. W. J. Shelling’s “Inquiry into the Nature of Human Freedom” using the unpublished manuscript of James Elliot Cabot’s translation of Schelling from the 1840s (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe). I locate Emerson’s reading of the MS against the backdrop of his own intellectual development as recorded in his journals from 1822 to 1859, working out in what ways Schelling’s work influenced and supported his ever changing conception of fate.


The Intertwining of Culture and Nature: Franz Boas, John Dewey, and Deweyan Strands of American Anthropology

Gabriel Alejandro Torres Colon, Charles A. Hobbs

This article argues that John Dewey, influenced by Franz Boas and early American anthropology, made the first attempt to understand nature from a modern anthropological perspective. We first explain how Boas helped develop the culture concept, which played a key role in the development Dewey’s own understanding of experience. In support of our interpretation of Dewey’s anthropology of nature, we conclude with some consideration of how Dewey’s anthropological philosophy served as an inspiration for anthropologists Ruth Benedict, Gene Weltfish, Alexander Lesser, and Leslie White.





April 2014  Vol. 75.2

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The Divine as Inaccessible Object of Knowledge in Ancient Platonism: A Common Philosophical Pattern Across Religious Traditions


The divine is an inaccessible object of human knowledge and reasoning according to some philosophers–theologians of the first four centuries CE. They display a refined cognitive approach to religion and a sophisticated treatment of the problem of “theo-logy”: reasoning and speaking about the divine, which nevertheless is unknowable and ineffable. They belong to the same philosophical tradition, Platonism, but to different religious traditions: Philo to Judaism, Plotinus to “paganism” and Origen and Gregory of Nyssa to Christianity. But their reflections on the divine as an impossible cognitive object for humans are homogeneous, and this, the essay argues, mainly on account of their common philosophical tradition, which provides them with a shared epistemological and ontological pattern. They show a tension between a declared apophaticism and a discourse about the divine that they do not renounce developing.


Definition, Division, And Difference In Machiavelli's Political Philosophy

Peter Stacey

This article aims to illuminate one of the most striking characteristics of Machiavelli’s intellectual style—deployed repeatedly in his political theory and usually termed his “dilemmatic” approach—by demonstrating that it is a technique derived from classical Roman rhetoric which forms part of a wider theory of definition.  Part I of the article extracts and outlines that theory, showing how it advocates a way of dividing and differentiating items in order to define them. Part II illustrates Machiavelli’s deep dependency on this theoretical apparatus throughout his political thought, perhaps most conspicuously of all in Il Principe.


Searcher Of Hearts: Cesare Baronio's History Of Conversion

Peter A. Mazur

The conversion of Henry IV of France to Catholicism provoked a debate in the Roman curia over the status of converts that was finally resolved through a re-reading of the history of the Church by one of its most well-known scholars, Cesare Baronio. Though often viewed as a political maneuver, Baronio’s argument for clemency towards heretics was in fact part of a larger shift in policy towards Protestants in Italy that was subsequently promoted by a proxy, the ex-Calvinist Justus Baronius, who publicized his own conversion and reception in the Roman curia in a collection of letters.


Leibniz, The Encyclopedia, And The Natural Order Of Thinking


This article investigates some of the didactic aspects of Leibniz’s encyclopedic project by asking how it could contribute to the development of a new intellectual ethos. Most commentators acknowledge that the encyclopedia was intimately linked to educational concerns. But they do not take sufficiently into account the implications this has for the concrete exposition of the encyclopedia, but subordinate the didactic aspect to the demonstrative one. I argue how the encyclopedic order was not just demonstrative, but also conceived so as to facilitate learning and stimulate further research by helping intellectuals acquire good scientific habits.


John Jamieson, Franz Passow, And The Double Invention Of Lexicography On Historical Principles

John Considine

This article argues that the historical principles which guide most major scholarly dictionaries today were invented independently by two nineteenth-century scholars, John Jamieson of Edinburgh in 1802 and Franz Passow of Danzig in 1812. It suggests how both Jamieson and Passow may have based their lexicographical innovations on contemporary developments in (i) literary and cultural history and (ii) geology, palaeontology, and biology, and proposes that this accounts both for the near-simultaneity of their innovations and for their remarkably modest attitudes towards them.


Eve And Evolution: Christian Responses To The First Woman Question, 1860-1900

Diarmid A. Finnegan

Historians of encounters between evolutionary science and Christianity have long been aware of the significance placed upon debates about the applicability of evolution to Adam. It has not been widely noticed, however, that in more conservative circles the creation of Eve was frequently thought to be a more difficult problem to solve. This essay examines how, in distinctive ways, the creation of Eve became a point of contention among three communities of conservative Christian thinkers grappling with the implications of evolutionary theory in the period 1860-1900.


"Vertical Perspective Does Not Exist": The Scandal Of Converging Verticals And The Final Crisis Of Perspectiva Artificialis

Rod Bantjes

In this paper I address the question of why the everyday experience of seeing verticals converge remained taboo in Western visual culture until the late nineteenth century and in painting until the 1920s. I argue that perspective theory was fused to a pre-Copernican, architectural model of space and a static model of vision based on Enlightenment optics rather than physiology. The dynamism of modernity and technologies of embodied vision such as the stereoscope exposed the covert assumptions of perspective orthodoxy. Efforts to rescue three-point perspective by invoking the station-point for viewing risked exposing perspective painting as just another peepshow art.