Previous Issue Article Abstracts
Volume 83, Number 1, January 2022
The first treatise written by Plotinus, On Beauty (Enn. 1.6), was admired among those Christian authors who were open to the influence of Platonic philosophy, in particular the Cappadocian Fathers. This could be due to a possible publication of the treatise before Porphyry’s editorial work for the Enneads. The presence of concepts of the treatise in their works is a sign of their interest in its rhetorical qualities and, at a deeper level, in the theoretical support that Plotinus’s thought could give to theological reflection. A possible reference to Plotinus’s treatise in Augustine, Conf. 10.6.8 is also discussed.
How did “revolution” obtain its particular meanings in political thought? This article examines the role played by translations of Polybius’s Histories (Book 6), where “revolution” was the near-unanimous choice for rendering “anacyclosis.” It further claims “revolution” displaced the earlier Aristotelian vocabulary of political change (in translations, “mutation” and “sedition”). Finally, it argues that recognizing the Polybian source of much “revolutionary” language in the early modern period fills in an important chapter in the conceptual history of revolution. For Polybians, revolution was a problem to be solved by a mixed government. Only in the eighteenth century would revolution become a solution.
This article examines the teaching of political ideas at the Scottish universities between 1600 and 1650. It demonstrates that regents did not direct their students toward one consistent Reformed view of political participation as a divinely mandated duty to control sin and advance the true religion, a position frequently advanced in contemporary printed works. Instead, university education provided students with a cross-confessional intellectual framework that emphasized both Augustinian and Aristotelian elements of early modern political thought. These differences would become essential for the languages of political legitimacy advanced by Scottish Reformed intellectuals during the wars of the 1640s.
“Bolshevism as a Moral Problem” and “Tactics and Ethics” were discussions of political ethics closely related to Max Weber’s contemporaneous “Politics as a Vocation.” They diverged from one another in their historical assessments of possibilities for ethically responsible revolutionary action. They are best understood as developments of an approach to political judgment originally forged by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, whose concerns were associated by Weber with Realpolitik and which continue to animate discussions of “political realism.” Overwriting these concerns as transitional moments in personal conversion narratives or the history of political thought has an inhibiting effect on historical and political judgment.
The Laozi (or Daodejing) is unique within the global transmission of ideas as the most translated philosophical work. This article confirms the proliferation of this classic (1930 translations in 94 languages) and employs the framework of Global Laozegetics to engage the diversity of interpretations included within this material. Its first section covers various early renderings in Asia and Europe, while its second section highlights how translations form interpretive lineages that transmit ideological readings, including fascist, anarchist, Marxist, and self-realizationist ones. Comprehending the complex global reception of the Laozi elucidates which versions impacted which people, including figures like Tolstoy and Heidegger.
Body Knowledge, Part I: Dance, Anthropology, and the Erasure of History
Isaiah Lorado Wilner
A photograph depicts the anthropologist Franz Boas posing as an Indigenous youth in search of human flesh. It looks like an icon of cultural appropriation, but behind the picture is a history of Indigenous influence. The archive of body knowledge—memories encapsulated in the motions of dance and indexed in images—reveals that the Kwak’wala-speaking peoples civilized the white man who came to study them, converting him to the Host–Guest logic of “potlatch” encoded in their Hamatsa dance. Seeing Boas as a host body of Indigenous knowledge radically reconfigures our understanding of influence, compelling us to ask who creates modernity.
Farewell to The German Ideology
It would be difficult to overstate the significance of the long-awaited MEGA2 I/5, which contains the manuscripts that Marx and Engels wrote for their failed journal project of 1845/46. This essay considers what it will mean to study Marx’s ideas and intellectual development in the wake of its publication. The volume offers an uncommon opportunity to develop new ways of reading and teaching these manuscripts, and thus of understanding the corresponding period in Marx’s intellectual development, but certain features of the MEGA2 I/5 also risk another outcome: little will change due to deeply ingrained habits.
Volume 82, Number 4, October 2021
The contention informing this essay is that the side-effects of the so-called Berengarian controversy about the Eucharist jeopardized the first steps Anselm of Bec, later of Canterbury († 1109), was taking as a learned author in the late 1070s. Anselm wrote his first treatises, Monologionand Proslogion, in an atmosphere heated by the exploitation of anti-intellectual rhetoric and the public condemnation of Berengar’s teaching by his enemies. This identification of Anselm’s predicament prompts a re-evaluation of the subject matter and literary aspect of Proslogion, the work that delivers his famous ontological argument for the existence of God.
The “Urbild” of “Einbildung”: The Archetype in the Imagination in Eighteenth-Century German Aesthetics
Julian Johannes Immanuel Koch
This article outlines what is arguably the uniquely German trajectory of the imagination, focusing on the relation between the imagination and “Urbild” in eighteenth-century German aesthetics, particularly in Kant and Schelling. I contend that shared German roots of the “Einbildung” (imagination) and “Urbild” (archetype) in “Bild” led German aesthetic thinkers to conceive of the imagination much more in (Neo-)Platonic terms. This article therefore argues that there is a perceptible rift in how the imagination is conceived in eighteenth-century discourse which follows a linguistic fault line between the Latin-origin “imagination” and the German “Einbildung.”
Like the overlapping circles of his famous diagrams, English probability theorist, logician, and historian John Venn (1834–1923) operated at a site of productive intersection. Across a career comprising seemingly disparate pursuits, Venn exhibited an epistemic apparatus shaped by a mathematical probability, formal logic, and British historicism. Scholarly interest in Venn has tended to isolate these elements; I argue that a deep continuity joined his projects. The unappreciated coherence of his work reveals larger convergent currents in Victorian historical thinking, a kind of statistical attitude according to which large series of elite individuals constituted the most illuminating historical subject.
During the Second World War, fighting the growing influence of left-leaning British scientists became the focal point of the publications of Friedrich Hayek, Karl Popper, and Michael Polanyi. Doing so, they elaborated key epistemological principles of neoliberalism: the indeterminate nature of knowledge, the shortcomings of holistic and determinist theories of society, and the spontaneous aspects of human organizations. Although at odds on the ideological spectrum, they shared with their adversaries the idea that the production of knowledge depended on economic and social conditions. Their view of what science and scientists should do informed the birth of the Mont-Pèlerin Society.
A great deal of ink has been spilled reflecting upon the historically contingent nature of race as a category, and as a lived experience. Bringing together the case studies of the interwar sites of Harlem, Paris, and London and, in the post–World War Two period of decolonization, the cities of Algiers and Dakar, this article is a contribution to ongoing conversations about how we might develop a critical conceptual apparatus for understanding the relationship between historical examples of black internationalism and the racial assumptions that underpin it by linking it to notions of place.
This article examines the sociologist Daniel Bell's interest in future research. Future research, to Bell, had as its particular purpose to ensure forms of coordination and steering acceptable to a liberal society. By examining Bell’s interest in future research and the activities of the Commission on the Year 2000, the essay proposes that future research played a role in Cold War intellectual history as a particular form of planning for the liberal polity. This idea of planning a liberal society changed decisively, however, between 1965 and 1975.
The work of Peter Abelard (1079–1142) leaves no one indifferent. Why should the writings stir up such emotions long after he became a point of reference in the history of ideas? Perhaps the most important reason is that Abelard has always been more than the author of his books. For the historians of ideas he served as an example of what it is to lead an intellectually independent life, against the standards set by society and church. It is to the credit of scholars discussed in this review essay that this historical question arising from “doing philosophy” is addressed.
Volume 82, Number 3, July 2021
Conceptions of Tolerance in Antiquity and Late Antiquity
The focus of this essay is on ancient and late antique views on the tolerance of insult. It explores the honor-centered structure of ancient and late antique thinking on this subject, and it draws out the implications of Christian attitudes toward tolerance of insult for the possibility of religious tolerance in late antiquity. The author concludes by contrasting the late antique conceptions of tolerance with contemporary conceptions, and suggests that the contrasts helps us to see some of the salient conditions of contemporary attitudes toward religious tolerance and freedom of religion.
Anxieties of Transmission: Rabbinic Responsa and Early Modern “Print Culture”
The Talmud states: “God precedes afflictions with their remedy.” But what if that remedy exacerbates the affliction? Early modern Jewish culture faced precisely this dilemma: A growing scholarly anxiety—transmitting and mastering crucial legal texts—was preceded by its solution, print. Print, however, simultaneously exacerbated the affliction. My article analyzes this dynamic's development in Jewish scholarly culture around the printing of rabbinic responsa in the mid-sixteenth century. Across early modern Europe, scholars grappled with simultaneously promising and overwhelming prospects of expanding textual corpora. This study illuminates shared dynamics of early modern knowledge, suggesting new approaches to print culture.
The First Conceptualization of Terrorism: Tallien, Roederer, and the “System of Terror” (August 1794)
While it is generally known that the word terrorism originated in the French Revolution, the exact circumstances of its emergence are much less known. First used publicly by Tallien, the neologism had actually been shaped by Pierre-Louis Roederer. From the outset, the latter had given it a conceptual scope by integrating it into a reflection on the characteristics of the use of terror for political purposes.
This article aims to clarify the stakes of the reading of Dante that concludes Ernst Kantorowicz’s 1957 book The King’s Two Bodies. It does so by reconstructing the relevant argumentative contexts for appraising it, starting from the account of the sovereign individual that Kantorowicz developed in his 1940s lecture courses at the University of California, Berkeley. It argues that, for Kantorowicz, Dante’s articulation of an exclusively human dignity constitutes a decisive chapter in the larger genealogy of the “superman” idea he begins to trace in that forum.
Translation in Action: Global Intellectual History and Early Modern Diplomacy
Lisa Hellman, Birgit Tremml-Werner
Intellectual and diplomatic history have to a surprising degree evolved as separate historiographies, but they can be combined through a theme crucial to both: translation. Translation enabled intercultural negotiation but could also bring about inaccuracies, misunderstandings, or consciously skewed representations. This issue argues that a multitude of actors can be understood as “translators,” that the power relations between types of actors, languages, and forms of communication was dramatically asymmetrical, and that gaps between representation and reality had real and dramatic political effects. On-the-ground translation practices thus illustrate how the international political system long rested on local developments and global encounters.
The new diplomatic history embraces an interest in the role of language in early modern diplomacy, especially in transcultural contexts. This article addresses the need for translation in inter-European relations by focusing on the connections between translation and diplomacy in mid-eighteenth century Stockholm. It shows that practices of translation had a real effect on who could engage in diplomacy. Moreover, through a focus on a less formal diplomatic communication, it highlights the multilingualism and absence of a lingua franca during an era of presumed francophonia in Europe, thus nuancing the idea of a singular European diplomatic culture.
Empires and nation states alike used maps to practically and discursively construct territory. Such maps were often intercultural productions, and thus illustrate the role of translation in diplomacy. This article analyzes border-making between and of the Russian, Qing, and Dzungar Empires in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, thus regionalizing Western Europe. This focus shows, first, how linguistic diplomatic actors could be missionaries and scholars, but also foreign prisoners of war. Second, it shows the role of non-textual translation, and the merging of cosmologies and scientific traditions. Finally, this article argues that intertwined practices of diplomacy, translation, and mapmaking had real and devastating effects on the perception of borders and territorial politics in the Central Asian borderlands.
The article explores translation processes behind diplomatic negotiations between Japan and the Spanish overseas empire in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. It applies a multi-layered approach that integrates the translations of original diplomatic documents with their re-translation as historiographical source compilations in the nineteenth and twentieth century. Analyzing the different connotations and nuances of friendship as a diplomatic concept, it highlights the impact of translation, both linguistic and cultural, as well as the strategies behind terminological choices, on intercultural encounters.
This article uses the relationship between the central Tokugawa government and its vassal domain of Satsuma as a window into changing notions of government and political geography in the context of early modern Japanese diplomacy. The article argues that a wide range of translation processes that occurred from around 1800—the coinage of new political terms in Japanese, cultural translation from Chinese Confucian classics, and the demands of Euro-American international law—both reflected changing circumstances of governance and foreign policy and contributed to a shift of the intellectual and institutional boundaries between the two.
Volume 82, Number 2, April 2021
Today the importance of epistolary networks for intellectuals in early modern Europe is well appreciated. Nevertheless, connections reaching outside the canon of celebrated humanists and scientists in the Republic of Letters are little studied. This article examines how Charles de Bovelles (1479–1567) used letters to establish a philosophical persona and publicize his contemplative approach to natural philosophy. Scrutinizing how Bovelles created an epistolary community comprising university alumni and men in religious professions, the article sheds new light on the culture of contemplation in the early sixteenth century.
"No distinction of Black or Fair": The Natural History of Race in Adam Ferguson's Lectures on Moral Philosophy
Bruce Buchan, Silvia Sebastiani
Recent scholarship on the Scottish Enlightenment has emphasized the increasing importance, in the last decades of the eighteenth century, of the concept of race. Yet race was a conceptual, moral, and taxonomic puzzle for Scots intellectuals such as Adam Ferguson (1723-1816). While the influence of Ferguson's published works has received wide scholarly attention, the content of his teaching has not. His surviving moral philosophy lecture notes offer us a window into the development of thought on race at the disciplinary intersections of moral philosophy and natural history, and the crossroads of Edinburgh's curricula and Britain's Empire.
This article analyzes the making of a novel consciousness of historicity in Germany around 1800, one that regarded mountains as vaults of a shared and palpable past. Revisiting a paleontological debate about the origin of large mammal bones found in caves, it reads the science of Johann Christian Rosenmüller (1771–1820) as a social and political accomplishment. By attributing the fossils to an indigenous "cave bear," and communicating an elite scientific debate to a lay audience, Rosenmüller presented an account of Germany's primordial past that fed seamlessly into its present, nurturing an idea of nationhood grounded in the (sub)soil.
In 1876, the French philosopher Charles Renouvier published Uchronie, an obscure philosophical novel narrating an alternate history where Christianity fails to take root in the West. Far from being a literary divertissement, the novel rests on an articulated philosophy of history, which emphasizes the role of contingency and human freedom in opposition to the organicist and deterministic historical visions of the time. My purpose is to provide the theoretical outlook of Renouvier's "philosophie analytique de l'histoire" and to place it within its historical context, in light of Renouvier's reactions to the political and intellectual vicissitudes of the Third Republic.
The article establishes heretofore neglected links between the German anti-English pamphlets during World War I, on the one hand, and right-wing antidemocratic theory after the war, on the other, by engaging with their central argumentative forms. Particularly the metaphors of the English as "merchants" or "peddlers" and England as a mechanical civilization in contradistinction to German organic culture facilitated the transfer of arguments between the discourses on war and democracy, respectively. The metaphors were old, but they were deepened by concrete enmity and intensified domestic constitutional arguments by underscoring the fundamental unsuitability of democracy for Germany.
This article examines the widespread and varied reception of Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State (1912) in Australia from the time of its publication to the mid-twentieth century. Belloc's claim that market capitalism was giving rise to a series of legislative reforms which entrenched the inferior, servile status of the working classes was of particular interest in Australia where innovations such as compulsory industrial arbitration were pioneered. In the 1930s Belloc's ideas inspired the Catholic Action movement, and they were subsequently developed in the debates around post-war reconstruction by a range of figures including the radical professor of philosophy John Anderson.
This review essay discusses recent research on sovereignty and the performing arts from both historical and theoretical perspectives. I argue that Elden, Ospovat, Welch, and Wolff approach early modern symbolic communication not simply as culture but also as political acts. During the turbulent transition from Absolutism to Enlightenment, performances at the court played a crucial role in negotiating the complex relationship between the sovereign and the subjects. The development of professional ballet, opera, and theater took place amid the decline of sovereignty and the separation between politics and morality.
Volume 82, Number 1, January 2021
The Seville-based book collector Hernando Colón framed his library project as the continuation of the explorations of his father, Christopher Columbus. But Colón’s library indexes, as well as notes for a peninsular land survey and plans for the upkeep of his collection after his death in 1539, reveal that his bibliographic methods in fact informed his cosmographic practice. Colón’s strategies of information management are significant because they shaped the cosmographic endeavors undertaken by the scholars who built the Escorial Library, and they offer an Iberian entry point into the interwoven histories of science and library culture in early modern Europe.
This article contributes to a growing debate over the sources for the account of the formation of the state found in Book 1 Chapter 2 of Machiavelli's Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. While recent scholarship has questioned the longstanding belief that Book 6 of Polybius’s Histories is the chapter’s principal source, I will argue here that Machiavelli is indeed indebted to Book 6, but in a different manner than previously observed. I will demonstrate this by reconstructing the interpretation of Book 6 that emerged in early sixteenth century Florence before situating the Discorsi within it.
While it is known that the originally mystical concept of “fundus animae” became a crucial notion in the German Enlightenment as the place of the unconscious, the route to its psychologization has hitherto been rather neglected by scholars. In the present article I reconstruct this process, taking into account the tensions between its mystical background and the Leibnizian metaphysical context, and investigating the ways in which the “fundus animae” began to serve as an explanatory basis for both the unaccountable paradoxes of the mind and the inspiration of the artist.
Fascisms and Their Afterli(v)es: An Introduction
Dagmar Herzog, Stefanos Geroulanos
How do we think about fascism’s relation to ideas today? The introduction to the cluster of essays proposes grounds on which to pursue anew the intellectual history of fascism: (1) on a global stage, from the Italian Empire, Japan, and Nazi Germany to Sweden and contemporary Argentina; (2) across the 1945 divide, considering the premises thanks to which fascism has re-emerged time and again; (3) as a history of the process-ideas and pleasures through which fascisms have convinced their adherents, woven together their ideologies, and carried out their violence.
The essay conceptualizes fascism as a global phenomenon and describes the radicalizing practice of the three fascist nation-empires, which were connected by (mostly belligerent) global moments. With the rise of transnational and global history, these entanglements became visible. Cooperation and competition between the fascist core countries and their periphery, their often precarious mediation, and coordination on the most varied, often informal, and extra-diplomatic forms are moving into the focus of the latest research. The essay shows how three major fascisms were intricately interwoven in their geopolitical orientation and entangled settlement colonialism.
This article traces the legal and social travails of a bigamist family unit, composed of a Kiel-based male professor, his two female partners, and many children. It shows how Nazi ideology provided surprising spaces for Germans to promote alternative sexual arrangements. The article further highlights the ambiguity of transgressions against bourgeois Christian morality during the Third Reich and the persistence of eugenicist values in post-Nazi Germany. Most importantly, it underscores how someone who officially did not count as an explicit Nazi or party member adopted the regime’s principles all the more enthusiastically, partly for opportunism, and partly for conviction.
After the Nazi defeat in May 1945, one man was instrumental in the survival of Nazi and antisemitic ideologies: the Swedish fascist leader Per Engdahl. This article accounts for his actions after the war, showing how he linked individuals and organizations in the Malmö Movement that shared his vision of Europe as a white continent, without “foreign racial elements” and without democracy. The denial of the Holocaust was born and the key concept of race was exchanged for the concept of ethnopluralism—an idea of separate, independent cultures living side by side but not mixing in order to avoid extinction.
Holocaust denial has been an enduring trope of Argentine extreme-right discourse, propitiated by these groupings’ affinity with fascism and by a vernacular “historical revisionism” which sought to vindicate “great men” supposedly “silenced” by “official history.” The diffusion of such perspectives could have influenced the rise of a similar “State terrorism” negationism, as stories of the military’s clandestine detention centers were labeled—like the Shoah—as forgeries to destroy the military’s prestige. This article approaches the initial reception of Holocaust denial in Dinámica Social; the “dirty war’s” glorification during the 80s in Cabildo and Alerta nacional; and 2000s full-fledged neo-negationism in B1.
Volume 81, Number 4, October 2020
Aquinas, ius gentium, and the Decretists
For his conception of the ius gentium, Aquinas took as his starting point the canon law doctrines of Gratian, who himself had adopted ideas from Isidore of Seville. Aquinas’s conception of the ius gentium was different of Gratian’s and relied to a large extent on the civilian interpretation of Roman law texts. This article analyzes how the decretists, the first interpreters of Gratian, arrived at a conception of the ius gentium that was different from that of Gratian himself, and thus paved the way for Aquinas to read the Roman law conception into the ius gentium.
There is no consensus on the precise role of ecclesiastical independents in shaping the revolutionary politics of the New Model Army. This essay explores how they crucially stretched the notion of non-dominating freedom across the social order and applied it more generally to the army’s social and political contexts. It then turns to how this understanding of freedom informed the army’s view of social justice, shaping the soldiers’ particular grievances and material demands. Finally, it considers how the concept of independence also enabled religious apologists for the army to advance new claims to self-authenticating institutional legitimacy.
The oft-cited theatricality of Adam Smith’s impartial spectator is contentious and rests on a generalized notion of theatre. This essay argues both that Smith, like his predecessors in sentimental moral philosophy, thought of spectatorship theatrically and that Smith’s spectatorship framework is rooted in French neoclassical dramaturgy. Smith’s formulation of sympathy in the Theory of Moral Sentiments bolsters this view, as does the correspondence between Smith’s definition of impartiality and the neoclassical formal isolation of spectators from the interests of protagonists. These facets of spectatorship are the basis of an impersonal mode that prevails in Smith’s social theory of morals.
The late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw a resurgence of interest in the supernatural in Scotland as elsewhere in the United Kingdom. A number of intellectual figures responded by proposing naturalistic explanations for supernatural phenomena, drawing on the legacy of Scottish Enlightenment philosophy. These included the geologist and antiquarian Samuel Hibbert and the phrenologist George Combe. This paper explores the interrelations between these theories, their roots in the troubled cultural politics of Scotland in the early nineteenth century, and the reaction of different protagonists in the cultural conflicts of the period to their ideas.
Mill’s statement that “poetry is overheard” is often read as a definition of the lyric in miniature and is associated with social retreat. Yet Mill saw his encounter with the Wordsworthian lyric as a corrective to utilitarian social theory, and as a supplement to Adam Smith’s theory of sympathy. Mill suggests that the writings of James Mill and Jeremy Bentham overlook the bond connecting individuals to one another. He reconceives communal aspects of feeling by drawing on Wordsworth’s poetry as the fulfillment of Smith’s affective account of social relations, a development which anticipates affect theory.
Like a number of contemporary progressive thinkers, William Clarke (1852–1901) was a socialist with liberal leanings. Believing in the benefits of collective ownership and democratic reform, he joined the Fabian Society in 1886 before resigning from it in 1897. This article seeks to account for Clarke’s intellectual development from socialism to liberalism by focusing on the implications of his political writings. It argues that this estrangement partly resulted from the incompatibility between the principle of historic necessity underlying his critique of private ownership and his ongoing commitment to democracy and pragmatic reform.
This essay interrogates the role of the charkha (spinning wheel) in Mohandas Gandhi’s thought. It argues that spinning deserves to be recognized as belonging in the realm of other high concepts and practices, such as non-violence, that have garnered much more academic attention. The article explores the centrality of the charkha to Gandhi’s ideology, emphasizing underappreciated facets such as its physical, moral, and spiritual effects. Finally, it argues that the versatility of the spinning wheel to Gandhi offers insights into how he conceived of and negotiated the relationship between means and ends in his philosophy.
Volume 81, Number 3, July 2020
This article presents a reassessment of the seventeenth-century debate over the origin of the Hebrew vowel points. Previous accounts have treated this debate from the perspective of Protestant scholarship, with the reception of Louis Cappel's Arcanum punctationisrevelatum (1624) used to measure progress or reaction according to how far scholars accepted or rejected—the latter for theological reasons—the critical advance his work has been taken to represent. The article argues this mischaracterizes the issue, showing why the question only became especially pressing in the mid-1640s in the context of broader developments in Catholic and Protestant biblical criticism.
Montesquieu's Considerations on the State of Europe
Nathaniel K. Gilmore
In 1748 Montesquieu simultaneously published his immense Spirit of the Laws and republished his brief Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline. Both the date of publication and the evidence of the texts themselves correct contemporary scholars' tendency to discount the status of the Considerations as the unique partner of the Laws. Reading the two works together illuminates Montesquieu's account of the state, his assessment of historical progress, and his predictions for the future of Europe.
The Idea of Liberty, 1600–1800: A Distributional Concept Analysis
Peter de Bolla, Ewan Jones, Paul Nulty, Gabriel Recchia, John Regan
This article uses computational and statistical methods for analyzing the concept of liberty 1600–1800. Based on a bespoke set of tools for parsing conceptual structures it contributes to the literature on the concept of liberty and engages with the thesis concerning negative liberty first put forward by Isaiah Berlin and subsequently modified by Quentin Skinner.
What is too often lacking in contemporary interpretations of Immanuel Kant's racial thinking is a more thorough overview of the context and of the literature that he used to support his ideas. This article is mainly limited to Kant's brief discussion on race mixing at the end of this 1785 essay. He presented there the cases of the gypsies, the black Portuguese, and the Jews on St. Thomas in order to show the consequences of this practice. A contextual understanding will reveal how Kant wished to contribute to on-going discussions and how he used his source material.
The Rural Economics of René de Girardin: Landscapes at the Service of L'Idéologie Nobiliaire
José M. Menudo, Nicolas Rieucau
René-Louis de Girardin is remembered for having invited Rousseau to his Ermenonville estate. Girardin believed it necessary to further the debate on gardens on the basis of a principle of continuity that rejects any idea of enclosure. This made it possible to establish an agricultural model that increased production and finally allowed the monopoly in grain sales to be broken. At the service of l'idéologie nobiliaire, his analysis shows the existence of a form of economic thinking in the second half of the eighteenth century that, giving primacy to agriculture, nevertheless cannot fall within the paths of physiocrats and agronomists.
Well-studied in historiography, nineteenth-century debates on Portugal's decadence ("decadência") left a deep and long-lasting impression in this country's historical culture. The idea that Portugal had reached its apogee and was inexorably losing ground in the concert of other European peoples led its intellectuals to search in the past for elements capable of inspiring a national rebirth. Among the most sought epochs was the Middle Ages, revalued in the context of romantic culture. This article explores how the concept of national decadence was examined in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Portuguese medievalist discourses.
Why compare Aby Warburg, talented cultural and art historian, creator of the eponymous library, and Leo Frobenius, pioneer of primitive art studies and the father of modern Africanism? Not merely for biographical reasons. The work of Warburg and Frobenius offers two clear examples of a cultural and scientific trend between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, which aspired to the organization of universal knowledge, in order to establish a method for the study of the most unstable field of human culture.
Volume 81, Number 1, January 2020
Following Hans Blumenberg, this essay studies the genealogy of the idea of originality in a medieval metaphor characterizing the church interior as a "meadow" or λειμῶν (leimôn). Scholars focusing on this metaphor have neglected its use as a description of artistic process. Procopius of Caesarea, John of Damascus, and Leo VI, "the Wise." form the basis of this study, which argues that compiling anthologies (Lat. florilegia, lit. "gatherings of flowers") provided a preliminary description of invention. This metaphor, in turn, laid an initial groundwork for modern writers, including Montesquieu, who sought to theorize originality against the language of manual labor.
Orient contra China: Eusèbe Renaudot's Vision of World History (ca. 1700)
One of the most important Orientalists, EusèbeRenaudot (1648-1720), was central in at least three major debates of his time: the late confessionalist anti-Protestant debate about the conceptions of the Eucharist; the hundred-year-long clash between the Jesuits and their enemies during the controversy of rites; and the Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes. Analyzing Renaudotʼs large collection of unpublished manuscript treatises, it is argued that the early modern concept of ‟world history," with its actors, civilizations, and even historical or cultural regions like the "Middle East," emerged as something of a by-product of competing visions within those debates.
Scholars have generally depicted kabbalists within an air of exclusivity. During the second quarter of the eighteenth century, however, a handful of Jewish mystics in Padua, led by Moses HayimLuzzatto, opened their secret society to others interested but not adept in Kabbalah in an attempt to establish a "perfected community" and attain the long-awaited messianic redemption. This article explores the social factors and intentions that drove the group's activity, specifically how Luzzatto's thoughts of the unity of creation played out in life and community.
In this article I explore how William Godwin depicted the social operation of media, and argue that his writing highlights a crosscurrent of alethic thought in Romantic-period Britain. I examine his direct assessments of the social merits of book-reading and conversation, revealing his ambivalence regarding sources of epistemic authority. I argue that he inherited this ambivalence from his Dissenting educational background, most especially the two-fold conception of truth that it negotiated. I thus situate Godwin's scrutiny of media in the alethic dialogue of his time, and offer this context as a helpful perspective upon his wider work.
By the 1880s, the Universities' Mission to Central Africa had stations scattered all over East Africa. African adherents came to the mission's Zanzibar headquarters for school and returned to the mainland as clergy and teachers. Despite their wide dispersal, the members of the mission maintained strong connections; in this piece, I trace these connections through the idea of the Upelekwa, a Swahili term meaning 'mission field' and connoting a community both defined and inclusive. Using the concept, mission adherents knit together the scattered stations, all the while looking ahead to the future expansion of the community.
By drawing from Schmitt's postwar notebooks, this article reconstructs Schmitt's criticism of utopian political thought as part of his broader critique of technicity. This paper begins with Schmitt's conceptual history of utopianism within the context of two "de-localizations" of space and human nature. It then unearths Schmitt's unique understanding of utopia as the annihilation of space and the negation of law. Schmitt's concern with utopianism is revealed to lie at the center of his postwar thought and thereby offers a new prism through which to interpret his theory of international politics and the law of nations.
This review essay examines the work of four new books that reassess critically the emergence of international relations as a discipline and foreign policy discourse in the twentiethcentury. It argues that, overall, these texts collectively expose connections between power and politics that contemporary disciplinary norms obscure and recover lost or forgotten modes of inquiry that deserve our attention. Overall, the collective portrait they paint of the international historical landscape is significantly richer and more complicated than mainstream accounts of disciplinary history would suggest.
Volume 80, Number 2, April 2019
Volume 79, Number 3, July 2018
The importance of Origen of Alexandria’s legacy for Giovanni Pico della Mirandola has been widely debated for its role in Pico’s trial, its possible reverberations on the entire “Apology,” and its assonance with the Pichian idea of the dignity of man. This article aims instead to show the substantial role of Origen in shaping the Pichian construction of the Christian Kabbalah’s tradition. This scrutiny, by clarifying the extent of the Origenian influence as well as Pico’s rhetorial strategies, helps to put the Pichian idea of the freedom of man in a new framework.
This article argues that Kant’s early metaphysics (1755–1764) remains unscathed by the arguments found in the 1766 work, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer. I expose the errors of the standard approaches to Dreams, which take the text to be either entirely opposed to metaphysics or at least critical of all present forms of metaphysics, Kant’s own early work included. Through a close reading of the text of Dreams, I show that Kant’s early metaphysics remains the standard of how metaphysics should be done, how it avoids any commitment to immaterial spirits, and what some of its actual conclusions are.
This paper situates Carl Hempel’s 1942 paper “The Function of General Laws in History” within a broader debate over the philosophy of history in American academia between 1935 and 1943. I argue that Hempel’s paper was directed against German neo-Kantianism, and show how the German debate over historiography continued between 1939 and 1943 in the context of New York through the contributions of German philosophers who operated in the same intellectual network as Hempel, namely Paul Oskar Kristeller and Edgar Zilsel. Whereas this debate still witnessed many different philosophical approaches, Hempel’s logico-analytic methodology would come to dominate analytic philosophy of history.
Introduction: Special Forum on Christianity and Human Rights
This essay explores the early Catholic response to the concept of human rights. It is widely assumed that the Catholic Church opposed human rights talk in the wake of the French Revolution, and only slowly came around to accepting it in the twentieth century. However, a more systematic analysis of Pius VI’s stance toward the French Revolution reveals that he approved of human rights, but had a more Thomistic understanding of them than what was found in the French Declaration. The Vatican’s embrace of human rights in the 1930s should accordingly be seen as a continuity of more long-standing practices.
How Christian conceptions of human rights became associated with anti-racism is the subject of this article. Protestants rooted human rights in a philosophical doctrine called “personalism,” whose language of “dignity,” the “human family,” and the “human person” was first developed in the Methodist-run philosophy department at Boston University at the turn of the century. Personalism, evoked in interwar discussions of racism and colonialism, transformed into the political language of human rights during World War II, a moment when Protestant intellectuals were seeking to defend liberal freedoms.
This article provides a rejoinder to recent historical accounts which trace the origins of international human rights to the work of conservative Christians writing in the 1930s and 1940s. Focusing on the French Catholics usually identified as the architects of Christian human rights theory, I argue that this was neither a unified project, nor an unambiguously conservative one. Instead, I stress the political ambivalence of Christian human rights discourse—the way it defied distinctions between right and left, or liberal and conservative.
This essay explores the transformation of Catholic thinking about the right to religious freedom. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Catholics vehemently opposed this right (Pope Gregory XVI called it “absurd and erroneous”). Church leaders claimed that in order to protect Catholic Church teachings on marriage, education, and worship, states had to enshrine them in law, even if that meant severely limiting the rights of Protestants, Jews, and others. The 1950s and 1960s, however, witnessed a sea change, as a growing chorus of thinkers and theologians called on Catholics to embrace a pluralist and tolerant attitude.
This essay explores the intellectual origins of Edith Stein’s canonization. In the years of the early Cold War, when Christians on both sides of the Atlantic proclaimed “Judeo-Christian civilization” to be the greatest bulwark against totalitarianism in both its Nazi and Soviet guises, Stein became a powerful anti-totalitarian symbol. During the 1980s, a new Pope, John Paul II, revived the memory of Stein and linked it to his own rich understanding of Judeo-Christian civilization as a set of values opposed to both Nazism and Communism. Thus, Edith Stein became an icon of anti-totalitarianism in an age of Holocaust memory.
Volume 79, Number 1, January 2018
Anthropologia: An (Almost) Forgotten Early Modern History
Tricia M. Ross
Approximately thirty almost entirely overlooked books appeared in Europe between 1500 and 1700 that include the word anthropologia in their titles. At first glance, the content of these works bears no resemblance to anthropology as we think of it. They present a combination of medieval traditions, cutting-edge medical practices, and evolving natural philosophical and theological systems found in universities of all confessions across Europe. But these largely overlooked sources reveal that the disciplines we use to study ourselves may have developed from an intertwined natural philosophical and religious system. They suggest that anthropology's typical origin narrative should be reconsidered.
This article examines the immediate Dutch reception of the Tractatus theologico-politicus. Using newfound archival sources it demonstrates that the anti-Spinoza activity of the Cartesians in Utrecht extends far beyond the well-known writings of Lambertus van Velthuysen and Regnerus van Mansveld. Their Cartesian network not only produced the very first public refutation to appear, but also formed a center for coordinating much of the Dutch response to Spinoza. This engagement, it is argued in closing, must be accounted for in Spinoza reception history, and forms the background to the mysterious visit Spinoza paid to Utrecht in the summer of 1673.
The Many Liberalisms of Serge Audier
The French philosopher Serge Audier has perhaps become the leading authority on the history of liberalism in France. However, he is largely unknown in the United States. This article attempts to provide the first critical overview of Audier's work in English. It does so by suggesting that the major aim of Audier's work is to revive a forgotten strand of social liberalism in France. The article illustrates this by looking at Audier's writings on the works of Léon Bourgeois and Raymond Aron and also his critical studies on the history of neoliberalism in France and beyond.
Revising History: Introduction to the Symposium on the Bicentennial of the Latin American Revolutions of Independence
Introduction to the symposium on the bicentennial of the Latin American revolutions of independence.
Empires, Nations, and Revolutions
This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.
The Conceptual History of Independence and the Colonial Question in Spanish America
pp. 89 - 103
Francisco A. Ortega
The idea that Spanish American countries experienced colonialism was well accepted for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The independence movements in the early nineteenth century were viewed as the result of struggles by oppressed nations against the metropole's tyranny. Recent historiography views the collapse of the monarchy as the result of the political and legal crisis brought about by the Napoleonic invasion and the illegal abdications in Bayonne in March 1808. Colonial and post-colonial theories and categories have been brought under scrutiny. The following pages sketch the historiographical and theoretical grounds and consequences of this paradigm shift.
Catholic Republicanism: The Creation of the Spanish American Republics during Revolution
pp. 105 - 123
The crisis of the Spanish Catholic monarchy paved the way for the creation of more than twenty republics in Latin America between 1810 and 1825. This paper analyzes early nineteenth-century Spanish American republican experiences, which have been generally neglected in the historiography, as constitutive parts of Atlantic republicanism. It focuses on the theologico-political considerations of the res publica from the seventeenth century onwards, the articulation of a patriotic discourse in the American colonies of Spain during the eighteenth century, and how Spanish-American revolutionaries used republican languages based on Roman references, natural rights, and Catholicism to create new political legitimacy.
Beyond the "History of Ideas": The Issue of the "Ideological Origins of the Revolutions of Independence" Revisited
pp. 125 - 141
This paper analyzes how Latin American historiography has addressed the issue of "the ideological origins of the revolution of independence," and how the formulation of that topic implies assumptions proper to the tradition of the history of ideas and leads to anachronistic conceptual transpositions. Halperín Donghi's work models a different approach, illuminating how a series of meaningful torsions within traditional languages provided the ideological framework for a result incompatible with those languages. This paradox forces a break with the frameworks of the history of ideas and the set of antinomies intrinsic to them, such as that between "tradition" and "modernity."
Race, Wars, and Citizenship: Free People of Color in the Spanish American Independence
pp. 143 - 156
The role played by free people of color in the Spanish American independence movements is at the center of this essay. Their ambiguous status makes them a privileged group to study when examining the negotiation and formation of racial identity as well as the definition of citizenship requirements in colonial and post-colonial contexts. Through an analysis of the contributions made by recent studies, this article proposes a historiographical survey of the transformation of racial and social hierarchies and of the shaping of new citizenship rights during the crisis of the Spanish Empire and the independence wars.
History of Concepts and the Historiography of the Independence of Brazil: A Preliminary Diagnosis
pp. 157 - 168
João Paulo Pimenta
The aim of this article is to discuss the history of the Independence of Brazil by highlighting the historiographical approaches from the so-called "History of Concepts," which in the current Brazilian historiography are related to a German intellectual branch, but often articulated to other approaches that can be referred to as intellectual history, history of languages and of political discourses. It offers a brief overview of the historiography of Independence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, through to the diagnosis of their basic lineages, then it discusses current conceptual approaches. The conclusion indicates five points to contribute to a better understanding of the Independence of Brazil.
pp. 169 - 171
pp. 173 - 175
October 2017 Vol. 78.4
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The fact that nonhuman animals share the power of communication, plus the likelihood that some share our capacity for ideation, demands reevaluation of why human ideas matter, and especially whether they adequately convey a sense of our place within the rest of nature. Nonhuman beings and phenomena may be intrinsically unhuman, but are not necessarily less important than us. Analysis of this difference-as-significance is an ongoing problem of the Anthropocene. This essay focuses on Arthur Lovejoy’s Great Chain of Being and Edmund Burke’s concept of the sublime, describing alternative ways of situating humans in relation to the nonhuman.
The De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum et homines (1645) by Fortunio Liceti is a one-of-a-kind text. In this book Liceti claimed that Aristotle converted to Judaism, and that he never contradicted the Scriptures in his writings. At a time when competing philosophical and scientific schools put Aristotle at odds with faith, restoring his reputation from a religious point of view could be seen as key to safeguarding Peripateticism. Nonetheless Liceti composed his work not to polemicize with anti-Aristotelians, but rather with fellow Aristotelians who were not sufficiently committed to defending his stature.
Richard Ligon’s True and Exact History of Barbados has been recognized as a major source of information on the emergence of planter society and slavery in the English Caribbean. Curiously, however, the centrality of the text’s discussion of business has been overlooked. Yet Ligon presents the History as a how-to manual on building and managing a sugar fortune. In doing so, Ligon self-consciously connects his work to Baconian ideas of improvement and useful knowledge to legitimize the position of the planters over others, and lend respectability to commercial accumulation.
When we read the Origin, we cannot help but hear echoes of the Wealth of Nations. Darwin’s “economy of nature” features a “division of labour” that leads to complexity and productivity. We should not, however, analyze Darwin’s ethics through this lens. Darwin did not draw his economic ideas from Smith, nor did he base his ethics on an economic foundation. Darwin’s ethics rest on Smith’s notion from the Theory of Moral Sentiments of an innate human faculty of sympathy. Darwin gave this faculty an evolutionary interpretation and built on this foundation an ethics far removed from what is commonly supposed.
Historians of sexuality credit marital advice with disseminating a modern discourse of the sexual, as developed by sexologists who understood sex as normal or abnormal. Marie Stopes did not reproduce their findings but drew on the methods of biometricians in attempting to normalize the natural. Thinking about Stopes’s methods in discerning a naturally occurring curve of normal female sex-impulses in relation to Havelock Ellis points to constraints in his production of the normal. The article traces the impact of Stopes’s attempt to measure desire by analyzing letters from her readers who became partners in the great scientific project of normalization.
This article reconstructs Leo Strauss’s reading of Rousseau’s Epicureanism to argue that his work is unified by an abiding concern with the problem of theory and practice. Strauss sought to clarify the distinction between theory and practice he considered a fundamental precondition of any properly philosophical reflection on political life, and he explained the pernicious obscuring of that distinction through a narrative tracing the modern modifications of classical Epicureanism. Strauss’s critical history of modern political thought is thus part of his attempt to restore the classical distinction between theory and practice to the status of a philosophical problem in modernity.
A review essay of recent literature in the field of Warburg studies.
April 2017 Vol. 78.2
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This article examines the theories of the power of ancient music and the superiority of the sense of hearing proposed by Girolamo Cardano in his De subtilitate and Julius Caesar Scaliger’s critique of these views in his Exercitationes exotericae de subtilitate. Despite Scaliger’s rejection of Cardano’s claim that he had successfully revealed the "subtle" nature of the sense of hearing and the innate harmony between music and the passions, both thinkers are shown to conduct their debate in one and the same inherited discourse in which new theories were shaped about music, what it does, or what it should do.
Zilsel’s thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel’s ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel’s thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel’s thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.
Immediately after Spinoza’s death in 1677 his first biographers framed a life which would play an important part in the eighteenth-century perception of the Dutch philosopher. Bayle’s entry on Spinoza in the Dictionnaire in particular, together with Jelles’s preface to the Opera posthuma, created the image of a philosopher whose dedication to philosophy was unconditional and whose moral behavior was impeccable. Despite the general hostility which Spinoza’s views continued to meet, his life appears to have contributed considerably to the gradual rediscovery of his works during the dying decades of the eighteenth century, most notably in Germany and the Netherlands.
When Jewish historians narrate the history of their field, they often point to Leopold Zunz (1794–1886) as its founder. My article challenges the notion that Zunz’s early understanding of Wissenschaft was primarily historical. Reconstructing the meaning of Wissenschaft for Zunz in its context, I argue that it was more philosophical than historical and closely linked to an ideal of character formation. Zunz’s view of Wissenschaft reveals the ways in which German idealist philosophy, neo-Humanist manifestos, and a Romantic religious reform agenda could produce a scientific interest in the human past that seems at odds with central tenets of historicism.
This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls’s philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls’s engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory. And the papers present conflicting accounts of Rawls’s democratic society and the role of democratic debate in the justification of a political vision.
Drawing from Rawls’s archived papers, I explore a few of the basic relationships between philosophy and democracy framing Rawls’s political philosophy.
This piece shows how other archives can complement the Rawls Papers at Harvard by reconstructing Rawls’s community of ethical theorists in the 1950s and early 1960s. It casts new light on Rawls’s early immersion in the nascent movement of American Wittgensteinianism at Cornell, and traces his involvement in a transatlantic group of philosophers doing “analytic ethics” with an emphasis on inductive logic in order to rebut the “emotive theory.” It further illustrates how the willingness of Rawls and his contemporaries to question “the naturalistic fallacy” laid the groundwork for Rawls to build his own mature moral theory on natural foundations.
This article sheds light on John Rawls’s views on John Dewey’s philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls’s rejection of Kant’s dualisms predates by at least three decades the “Dewey Lectures” (1980) and that Dewey’s notion of deliberation as “dramatic rehearsal in imagination” might have had an impact on Rawls’s development of the notion of “reflective equilibrium” as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection.
I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory’s influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls’s political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments. This was an idealized analysis unconnected to the vision of direct democracy.
January 2017, Vol. 78.1
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The legal and political theory of Jean Bodin made a significant impact on ecclesiastical and constitutional ideas in the earliest puritan colonies in New England (ca. 1620-50), structuring the terms of debate over basic institutions. The Massachusetts regime was initialy considered a “popular state” with an “aristocratic government,” akin to ancient Rome and modern Geneva. Through the pressures of political conflict, however, the colony elite abandoned Bodin’s distinction between sovereignty and government in favor of Aristotelian ideas of mixture and balance. Radical democrats, by contrast, creatively adapted Bodin’s analytic protocols to advocate reforms that he would have abhorred.
This paper discusses Pierre Bayle’s article on Muhammad in his Dictionnaire historique et critique (1696), especially with regard to its two main themes: the role of force in the establishment of Islam, and sexual morality within Islam. Both themes had been a traditional part of Christian apologetics for centuries, but Bayle takes them up in an unconventional way, proposing to write the history of Islam objectively rather than fitting it into a Christian story. This article will discuss these and other themes in Bayle’s "Mahomet" and place it within the wider historiographical context of the early modern debate on Islam.
A generation before Kant emerged from his "dogmatic slumber,” Christian Wolff’s rationalist metaphysics had already undergone a crisis. When Johann Jakob Bodmer translated Paradise Lost into German (1732) it sparked a polemic among leading Wolffians. The metaphysics of Milton's poetology raised concerns about the extent and bounds of rational imagination analogous to Kant's concerns about the limits of pure reason. The aesthetics of creative genius Bodmer articulated in his defense of Milton was based on Wolff’s rationalism yet found warm acceptance among leading Romantics of the following generation. This article therefore contributes to the rationalist roots of Romantic irrationalism.
A number of recent interpretations defend the description of Adam Smith as "a strong supporter of natural theology" and claim that his moral philosophy depends, in some way, on God and God’s providence. This paper argues against that claim using novel evidence. What I demonstrate is that Smith took positions at odds with a conventional commitment to natural religion’s importance for morality. In particular, I show that it is hard to square Smith’s alleged support of natural religion with his account of conscience, his natural rights theory, and his omission of piety from his catalog of virtues.
Simon W. Taylor
This article offers an explanation for Leo Strauss’s apparently contradictory views on Israel and the Zionist project. Strauss’s views on Zionism, I argue, are intelligible only within an interpretative framework that allows for the fundamentally open-ended nature of Strauss’s thought. With this in mind, the article demonstrates how Strauss was able to reject the philosophical validity of Zionism even as he maintained a sectarian loyalty to Israel and the Jewish people. These twin identities – what I term “Strauss the Philosopher” and “Strauss the Man” – are justified on the grounds of Strauss’s wider thought.
In late colonial Uganda, British social scientists, development experts, religious leaders, and administrators used the metaphor of adolescence to explain political unrest. If Uganda could be seen as an adolescent, upheaval in the model colony was a sign of successful growth, not a rejection of British administration or global ideas of development and progress. Using the metaphor of adolescence, experts emphasized the period’s turmoil as signs of biosocial, adolescent maturation, rather than symptoms of political competition, clashing class interests, or ethnic patriotisms. Through this powerful metaphor, British observers rejected any politics based in different values, interests, or goals.
A review essay considering three recent works: Philology: The Forgotten Origins of the Modern Humanities, by James Turner; World Philology, edited by Sheldon Pollock, Benjamin A. Elman, and Ku-ming Kevin Chang; and Minima Philologicaby Werner Hamacher.
October 2016 Vol. 77.4
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The article focuses on one entry written in Hebrew in the Album amicorum belonging to the great humanist and diplomat Jacques Bongars. This precious document challenges conventional wisdom about aspects of the life and work of both Bongars and the Maharal of Prague, a central figure in Jewish cultural life in sixteenth-century Central Europe. By setting the album entry in both figures’ historical and cultural worlds, the article reveals how the worlds of these two late great Renaissance figures were intertwined.
Galileo’s 1638 Two New Sciences, a canonical text of early modern science, is analyzed as a window into period practices of mixed-mathematical reading. Galileo’s depiction of reading reflects common scholarly practices, including those of summarizing, commenting, repeated study, and an interest in mathematical diagrams. With this text, Galileo also attempted to shape his readers’ practices, inciting them to approach topical-based reading strategies with care and to use experiment and experience to validate the written word. It is suggested that the concern with reading practices exhibited in the text derived from circumstances surrounding Galileo’s 1633 condemnation.
Intellectual historians have often associated contexts with places. In this paper, I examine the effects of this association and develop a different model more suited to transnational study. I guide my analysis by a study of neo-scholastics in the early part of the twentieth century, who wrote for a transnational audience. They were able to make their texts intelligible to readers in different countries by drawing on a shared archive of medieval scholasticism. Their example, I suggest, provides insights into the meaning and value of contextualization, and opens up new ways to understand how ideas transcend geographical and temporal divides.
Almost no attention has been given to Hannah Arendt’s discussion of automation despite her claim that it was of almost unparalleled importance. This article demonstrates how Arendt’s conception of political action came to depend on her assessment of American technological trends following nuclear fission, especially automation and cybernetics. It contextualizes Arendt’s engagement with American interlocutors, showing how this informed her conception of political action in The Human Condition (1958). It is intended to provide some groundwork for further exploration of Arendt’s consideration of how modern technology and politics correlated.
An introduction to the symposium to follow, on Jonathan Israel’s 2011 volume Democratic Enlightenment, with contributions by Helena Rosenblatt, Joanna Stalnaker, and Jonathan Israel. The symposium was held at the CUNY Graduate Center on February 25, 2013, and moderated by Richard Wolin; all contributions have been revised for publication.
This contribution to the symposium on Jonathan Israel’s Democratic Enlightenment focuses on Israel’s treatment of Rousseau, in particular contesting his characterization of Rousseau as a “traditionalist” thinker.
This essay addresses Jonathan Israel’s work on the Enlightenment and his response to his critics, with a particular focus on his interpretation of the French Enlightenment figures Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The essay makes the argument that the stakes of the vociferous exchange between Israel and his critics concern not just our historical interpretation of the Enlightenment, but also the place of dialogue in our search for historical and philosophical truth. In neglecting the central importance of dialogue in Enlightenment thought, Israel has attributed a static quality to the thought of the radical thinkers he seeks to champion.
The final contribution to the symposium on Jonathan Israel’s Democratic Enlightenment, in which Israel responds to the preceding essays by Helena Rosenblatt and Joanna Stalnaker.
July 2016 Vol. 77.3
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This paper tracks the fortunes of the debate on whether children playing at baptism can actually administer and receive a valid sacramental baptism from Rufinus of Aquileia (late 4th to early 5th century) through ca. 1300. Theologians and canonists who addressed this question arrived at no consensus. They often disagreed with their own masters, applied Rufinus to a range of issues he never took up, used him to support or criticize Augustine on this topic, and viewed as acceptable more than one position on it within orthodox Christianity.
This essay analyzes Robert Burton’s methodological approach to the subject of melancholy and draws comparisons between Burton’s method of inquiry and the 17th-century scientific method at large. Burton’s sources are hence examined and two epistemological lines of influence are singled out, one being characterized by deductive procedures (Galen, Ramus), and the other by inductivism (Hippocrates, pseudo-Hippocratic representation of Democritus). Combined by Burton, these traditions inspired the structure of Burton’s Anatomy, which allowed the concurrence of multiple opinions that mutually interact and automatically correct one another within a cento-like text.
During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.
Samuel Pufendorf is known for his normative natural law philosophy, and particularly for his theory of sociability. This article concentrates on a topic that has received very little attention – his theory of the motivating character of passions in social life. It will demonstrate that individually and politically governed passions play a central role in Pufendorf’s description of the structure of human societies. I argue that for Pufendorf the norms of sociability are effective in social life because social interaction, guided by political governance, enables people to moderate their antisocial passions and habituate themselves to sociable passions.
Although European travelers to the Ottoman Empire often noted the inhabitants’ “fatalism,” historians have never seriously examined this intellectual phenomenon. Whether or not we can credit such sources, the testimony of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Turkish and Arabic sources points to a robust debate over fate, free will, and predestination. What were the reasons behind these discussions? What issues were at stake? This article outlines the context and content of the debate. It then offers some observations about the wider significance of free will and predestination in the Ottoman intellectual universe – particularly their relation to early modern bureaucratic and military reform.
In his wartime discourses of 1914, Henri Bergson mobilizes his philosophy of creative evolution: France is a nation of creative life able to replenish itself, whereas Germany, for all its technological might, is a mechanistic power bound to wear itself out. This paper shows that this moblization is made possible by Bergson's philosophy of will: life as a creative principle is will, and it is a controllable and commandable willpower that he opposes to Germany. Grasping this is crucial for understanding not only the war discourses but also Bergson's later reflections on technology, modernity, and mysticism.
The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology.
April 2016, Vol. 77.2
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This article deals with a forgotten treatise on the age of the world, written between 1308 and 1316 by Walter Odington, a monk of Evesham Abbey, otherwise known for his writings on alchemy and music theory. By tracing the sources and rationale behind Odington’s arguments and comparing them with those of other medieval authors, the article attempts to shed new light on the state of chronological scholarship in England in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, when astronomical and astrological methods were freely used to supplement or replace scriptural interpretation, yielding creative and unexpected results.
This paper focuses on the shift that occurred in the spatial representation of states in the eighteenth century. This shift will be considered as a combination of institutional reforms and of a new social awareness of space. A consideration of the case of the Italian Piedmont will demonstrate how “national” space was created through antiquarian research and how a larger political confrontation took place in the guise of a learned debate. The diverse accounts of Piedmontese history under examination all employed methods derived from previous ages, relying upon a concept of space as historically continuous, embedded in time immemorial.
At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams’s Machiavellianism—his conviction that men’s passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation’s character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government. Situating the Discourses vis-à-vis Adams’s contemporaneous reading of Montesquieu, this article argues for an underappreciated historicist dimension to his thought.
This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.
Pedro T. Magalhães
The thesis that the theory of charismatic–plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors’ concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber–Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity. Instead, it should rather be understood in terms of a contingent affinity.
Deborah R. Coen
The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of “scaling”; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable. Historical examples are explored in which such a process of commensuration has allowed for a pluralism of perceptions of space and time.
Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.
January 2016 Vol. 77.1
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Ancient Greeks drew advice from oracles, dreams, entrails, the movements of birds, sneezes, and myriad other sources for divination. Classicists typically study such phenomena as examples of occult religion, or for their use as a social mechanism for managing dissent and forging consensus. Ancient philosophical accounts by contrast go a longer way toward considering them seriously, on their own terms. They take them as an invitation into developing speculative accounts of non-standard epistemological schemes. Plato is examined as a case study of a more general Greek philosophical tendency to treat divination as something akin to what we might call intuition.
Scarce attention has been given to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's engagement with the philosophical theology of Jonathan Edwards, and yet a clear understanding of each thinker's position on determinism and Original Sin is of vital importance if we are understand the lasting significance of their disagreements. There have been a number of studies to take up Coleridge's influence on the American Romantics, but there is no scholarship that has taken into account how the reception of this influence was inflected both by the legacy of Edwards and by the critical response that his theology elicited from Coleridge.
Matthew S. Adams
The work of Herbert Spencer was a crucial influence on the development of Peter Kropotkin’s historical sociology. However, scholars have underestimated this relationship; either overlooking it entirely, or minimizing Kropotkin’s attachment to Spencer with the aim of maintaining the utility of his political thought in the present. This article contests these interpretations by analyzing Kropotkin’s reading of Spencer’s epistemological, biological, and political ideas. It argues that Kropotkin was engaged in a critical dialogue with Spencer, incorporating many Spencerian principles in his own system, but also using this reading to articulate a distinctive anarchist politics.
This article addresses the role of asymmetry in the interaction between intellectual fields in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By focusing on the spatial and temporal hierarchies implicit in the ways intellectuals from the Nordic countries perceived and made use of marginality and backwardness, the article brings a peripheral perspective to the discussion of transnational intellectual history. This is important as the discussion on transnational history tends to stress notions like reciprocity and hybridity, which reproduce the ideal of a borderless and equal republic of letters, and paints a too harmonious picture of global cultural space.
The sixth and final volume of J. G. A. Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion appeared in 2015; Wolin designates this work an exemplar of “total history” and of “philosophical historiography,” in Momigliano’s term. The symposium to follow—comprising this introduction by Richard Wolin, essays by Helena Rosenblatt, Jonathan Israel, and Pierre Force, and a concluding response by Pocock—constitutes one of the first critical examinations of Pocock’s late work, and arises out of a conference hosted at the CUNY Graduate Center in 2010.
In Barbarism and Religion, his six-volume work on the “Enlightenments” of Edward Gibbon, J. G. A. Pocock argues for a “family of enlightenments,” disputing accounts, particularly Venturi’s and Gay’s, of it as a unified phenomenon. This article asserts, however, that Pocock’s reconfiguration of different national contexts to emphasize the diversity of strands of the Enlightenment underestimates their commonality and the degree to which they fall into the recognizable currents of radical and moderate. Ultimately, Pocock’s attention to the ecclesiastical and theological dimensions of the Enlightenment undermines rather than supports his argument for its pluralism.
This article offers a critical discussion of Pocock’s analysis of the relationship between Gibbon and Voltaire, and particularly the extent to which Decline and Fall was inspired by Voltaire’s Essai sur les moeurs. It shows that “Momigliano’s hypothesis” about the divorce of philosophy and erudition and their reconciliation in Gibbon was initially a commentary by Momigliano on Voltaire’s historical work. It argues that the “Momiglianian model” plays a central role in Pocock’s argument in Barbarism and Religion. In that sense, understanding Gibbon’s highly ambiguous appraisal of Voltaire helps us understand the overall purpose of Decline and Fall.
Rosenblatt questions whether Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion, though enormously learned and rich, in fact accomplishes Pocock’s stated aims. In other words, does the context presented help to explain the intended meaning and significance of Gibbon’s Decline and Fall? She asks whether Pocock’s methodology, indebted to the Cambridge School, is consistent and serviceable and challenges his claim that Gibbon should be seen as a member of the “Protestant Enlightenment.”
July 2015 Vol. 76.3
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This article seeks to locate Vives’s work in the tradition of humanist thought that criticized the linguistic and philosophical abstraction of the scholastics. After discussing Vives’s views on language and knowledge as functions of man’s biological nature, the article argues that for Vives the topics, as seats of argumentation, are a reflection of the ontological order and as such an instrument and heuristic aid for the human mind. They form a grid through which knowledge can be acquired and arguments be formulated. The topics bridge the world of (unknown) essences and man’s epistemic categories.
In 1778, Vicesimus Knox declared his time the “Age of Information,” suggesting, in a fashion recognizable today, that the period had severed connections with prior ages. This paper examines Knox’s claim by exploring changes in conceptions of information across the eighteenth century. It notes in particular shifts in the concept’s personal and political implications, reflected in the different ways information is used from Locke at the beginning of the century to Godwin at the end, and manifest to some degree in Knox’s own political radicalisation.
In the early 1800s, two figures foundational to modern intellectual life, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Friedrich Schleiermacher, engaged in what they called a “quiet war,” stemming from Schelling’s famous lectures on the method of academic study and Schleiermacher’s reaction. This paper argues that their “quiet war” resulted in a powerful synthesis that transformed the German university model and German Protestant and Catholic university theology until the dawn of the twentieth century. Schleiermacher sharply criticized and then in essence adopted the program of Schelling’s lectures. Their disagreements masked deeper commonalities, which together contributed to theology’s historicization in the nineteenth century.
Histories of liberalism have neglected the existence of a distinctive Spanish liberalism. Influenced in part by British and French thinkers, Spanish liberals also sought to reconnect Spanish political thought with the tradition of the Scholastics. The resulting liberalism combined the two traditions, incorporating both individualist and communitarian features. This article exhibits this unique liberalism through an examination of Francisco Martínez Marina and the 1812 Constitution which he influenced. A proper understanding of this work is important both for developing a more comprehensive understanding of liberalism’s history and for its subsequent influence in Spain and Spanish America.
This article reconsiders Bentham’s theory of liberty in relation to republican and democratic ideas in the Age of Revolution. It reinterprets his jurisprudential definitions of liberty as ideological weapons intended to “cut the throat” of pro-American and proto-democratic discourse. In particular, his negative definition of individual liberty and his democratic and international definitions of political liberty were designed and used to caricature and draw to absurdity the republican ideal of self-government. The early Bentham, according to this interpretation, was a subversive critic of republicanism, who occupied its language of liberty and security while trying to neutralize its democratic potential.
In this paper, I explore the work of several positivists involved with the “Metaphysical Club” of Cambridge, Massachusetts in the early 1870s—Fiske, Wright, and Abbot. Like the logical positivists of the 1930s, these philosophers were forced to answer a key question: with so many of its traditional domains colonized by science and so many of its traditional questions dismissed as metaphysical or useless, what is left for philosophy to do? One answer they gave was that philosophy could unify the sciences. As Fiske put it, “positive philosophy is science organized.”
Although there has been much discussion of the reception of Hobbes’s work, Hobbes’s response to his own reception has rarely received much consideration. This article looks at Hobbes’s engagements with his critics. Far from being rearguard actions by a philosopher under siege, or disingenuous attempts to curry favour with those in power, they can be read as moments when Hobbes in fact sought to convert what he saw as the “truth of speculation into the utility of practice.”
January 2015 Vol. 76.1
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In this paper, I wish to present the first full-fledged investigation of Benedetto Varchi’s manuscript writings on psychology, which show the depth of his familiarity with philosophy and his originality as a thinker. In particular, I wish to show that Varchi was not an Averroist. Rather in the manuscript Varchi rejects Averroistic doctrines and seeks to reconcile Aristotelian psychology with the truth of religion. In so doing, Varchi appropriates Themistius’s interpretation of Aristotle through the filter of Marcantonio Zimara’s writings, which allows him to support the immortality and indivisibility of the human soul while safeguarding the doctrines of Christian faith.
This paper presents the scientific project of Descartes’s Meteors (1637) and integrates it in the development of Descartes’s thought. It assesses Descartes’s publication strategies and the reception of the essay, while drawing attention on its opposition to contemporary Aristotelian meteorology. I argue that Descartes is concerned in The Meteors with advancing an anti-qualitative physics on the basis of an ontological reduction of real accidents to modes. I then analyses Descartes’s nominalist critique of the late-scholastic notion of body from Replies VI, The World and Rule XIV.
While the Royal Society’s experimental and mathematical investigations of the 1660-90s opened up new areas of acoustical knowledge, these did not simply overturn older traditions of musical wisdom. Fellows continued to draw on stories of music’s power contained in Classical mythology and Ancient history, as well as more contemporary anecdotes. Considering how they used, evaluated, and interpreted these stories, this study reveals the interdependence of myth, anecdote, and scientific thought in the Royal Society’s musical investigations. Their blending of Humanism with empirical philosophy proved a productive site for developing new conceptions of musical creativity and purpose.
Since his first writings, C. S. Peirce defended an unpsychological approach to logic. His authority was J. F. Herbart, who in his Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie had affirmed that “in logic it is necessary to ignore everything that is psychological.” This would become a standard reference for Peirce’s philosophy of logic. Moreover, it was from Herbart’s conception of apperception that Peirce inherited the “synechistic” law of mind first exposed in 1892. This paper explores Peirce’s lifelong “Herbartian” antipsychologism, reviews Herbart’s notion of apperception and indicates its significance for Peirce’s law of mind.
Stephanie L. Schatz
This essay reads Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) alongside influential mid-century Victorian psychology studies—paying special attention to those that Carroll owned—in order to trace the divergence of Carroll’s literary representations of the “dream child” from its prevailing medical association with mental illness. The goals of this study are threefold: to trace the medico-historical links between dream-states and childhood, to investigate the medical reasons behind the pathologization of dream-states, and to understand how Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland contributed to Victorian interpretations of the child’s mind.
Ralph Waldo Emerson’s 1860 essay “Fate” has long been recognised as one of his most important essays. This paper is the first to examine the significance for Emerson of his reading of F. W. J. Shelling’s “Inquiry into the Nature of Human Freedom” using the unpublished manuscript of James Elliot Cabot’s translation of Schelling from the 1840s (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe). I locate Emerson’s reading of the MS against the backdrop of his own intellectual development as recorded in his journals from 1822 to 1859, working out in what ways Schelling’s work influenced and supported his ever changing conception of fate.
Gabriel Alejandro Torres Colon, Charles A. Hobbs
This article argues that John Dewey, influenced by Franz Boas and early American anthropology, made the first attempt to understand nature from a modern anthropological perspective. We first explain how Boas helped develop the culture concept, which played a key role in the development Dewey’s own understanding of experience. In support of our interpretation of Dewey’s anthropology of nature, we conclude with some consideration of how Dewey’s anthropological philosophy served as an inspiration for anthropologists Ruth Benedict, Gene Weltfish, Alexander Lesser, and Leslie White.
April 2014 Vol. 75.2
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The Divine as Inaccessible Object of Knowledge in Ancient Platonism: A Common Philosophical Pattern Across Religious Traditions
The divine is an inaccessible object of human knowledge and reasoning according to some philosophers–theologians of the first four centuries CE. They display a refined cognitive approach to religion and a sophisticated treatment of the problem of “theo-logy”: reasoning and speaking about the divine, which nevertheless is unknowable and ineffable. They belong to the same philosophical tradition, Platonism, but to different religious traditions: Philo to Judaism, Plotinus to “paganism” and Origen and Gregory of Nyssa to Christianity. But their reflections on the divine as an impossible cognitive object for humans are homogeneous, and this, the essay argues, mainly on account of their common philosophical tradition, which provides them with a shared epistemological and ontological pattern. They show a tension between a declared apophaticism and a discourse about the divine that they do not renounce developing.
Definition, Division, And Difference In Machiavelli's Political Philosophy
This article aims to illuminate one of the most striking characteristics of Machiavelli’s intellectual style—deployed repeatedly in his political theory and usually termed his “dilemmatic” approach—by demonstrating that it is a technique derived from classical Roman rhetoric which forms part of a wider theory of definition. Part I of the article extracts and outlines that theory, showing how it advocates a way of dividing and differentiating items in order to define them. Part II illustrates Machiavelli’s deep dependency on this theoretical apparatus throughout his political thought, perhaps most conspicuously of all in Il Principe.
Searcher Of Hearts: Cesare Baronio's History Of Conversion
Peter A. Mazur
The conversion of Henry IV of France to Catholicism provoked a debate in the Roman curia over the status of converts that was finally resolved through a re-reading of the history of the Church by one of its most well-known scholars, Cesare Baronio. Though often viewed as a political maneuver, Baronio’s argument for clemency towards heretics was in fact part of a larger shift in policy towards Protestants in Italy that was subsequently promoted by a proxy, the ex-Calvinist Justus Baronius, who publicized his own conversion and reception in the Roman curia in a collection of letters.
Leibniz, The Encyclopedia, And The Natural Order Of Thinking
This article investigates some of the didactic aspects of Leibniz’s encyclopedic project by asking how it could contribute to the development of a new intellectual ethos. Most commentators acknowledge that the encyclopedia was intimately linked to educational concerns. But they do not take sufficiently into account the implications this has for the concrete exposition of the encyclopedia, but subordinate the didactic aspect to the demonstrative one. I argue how the encyclopedic order was not just demonstrative, but also conceived so as to facilitate learning and stimulate further research by helping intellectuals acquire good scientific habits.
John Jamieson, Franz Passow, And The Double Invention Of Lexicography On Historical Principles
This article argues that the historical principles which guide most major scholarly dictionaries today were invented independently by two nineteenth-century scholars, John Jamieson of Edinburgh in 1802 and Franz Passow of Danzig in 1812. It suggests how both Jamieson and Passow may have based their lexicographical innovations on contemporary developments in (i) literary and cultural history and (ii) geology, palaeontology, and biology, and proposes that this accounts both for the near-simultaneity of their innovations and for their remarkably modest attitudes towards them.
Eve And Evolution: Christian Responses To The First Woman Question, 1860-1900
Diarmid A. Finnegan
Historians of encounters between evolutionary science and Christianity have long been aware of the significance placed upon debates about the applicability of evolution to Adam. It has not been widely noticed, however, that in more conservative circles the creation of Eve was frequently thought to be a more difficult problem to solve. This essay examines how, in distinctive ways, the creation of Eve became a point of contention among three communities of conservative Christian thinkers grappling with the implications of evolutionary theory in the period 1860-1900.
"Vertical Perspective Does Not Exist": The Scandal Of Converging Verticals And The Final Crisis Of Perspectiva Artificialis
In this paper I address the question of why the everyday experience of seeing verticals converge remained taboo in Western visual culture until the late nineteenth century and in painting until the 1920s. I argue that perspective theory was fused to a pre-Copernican, architectural model of space and a static model of vision based on Enlightenment optics rather than physiology. The dynamism of modernity and technologies of embodied vision such as the stereoscope exposed the covert assumptions of perspective orthodoxy. Efforts to rescue three-point perspective by invoking the station-point for viewing risked exposing perspective painting as just another peepshow art.